The Daily Magic Formula Stock for 11/29/2007 is Barrett Business Services Inc. According to the Magic Formula Investing Web Site, the ebit yield is 21%. and the EBIT ROIC is > 100%.
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Barrett Business Services, Inc. ("Barrett," the "Company," "our" or "we"), was incorporated in the state of Maryland in 1965. We offer a comprehensive range of human resource management services to help small and medium-sized businesses manage the increasing costs and complexities of a broad array of employment-related issues. Our principal services, Professional Employer Organization ("PEO") and staffing, assist our clients in leveraging their investment in human capital. We believe that the combination of these two principal services enables us to provide our clients with a unique blend of services not offered by our competition. Our platform of outsourced human resource management services is built upon our expertise in payroll processing, employee benefits and administration, workers' compensation coverage, effective risk management and workplace safety programs and human resource administration.
In a PEO arrangement, we enter into a contract to become a co-employer of the client's existing workforce and assume responsibility for some or all of the client's human resource management responsibilities. Staffing services include on-demand or short-term staffing assignments, long-term or indefinite-term contract staffing and comprehensive on-site management. Our staffing services also include direct placement services, which involve fee-based search efforts for specific employee candidates at the request of our PEO clients, staffing customers or other companies.
Our ability to offer clients a broad mix of services allows us to effectively become the human resource department and a strategic business partner for our clients. We believe our approach to human resource management services is designed to positively affect our clients' business results by:
â€˘ allowing our clients to focus on core business activities instead of human resource matters;
â€˘ increasing our clients' productivity by improving employee satisfaction and generating greater employee retention;
â€˘ reducing overall payroll expenses due to lower workers' compensation costs; and
â€˘ assisting our clients in complying with complex and evolving human resource related regulatory and tax issues.
We provide services to a diverse array of customers, including, among others, electronics manufacturers, various light-manufacturing industries, forest products and agriculture-based companies, transportation and shipping enterprises, food processing, telecommunications, public utilities, general contractors in numerous construction-related fields and various professional services firms. During 2006, we provided staffing services to approximately 1,800 staffing services customers, which compares to approximately 2,000 during 2005. In addition, at December 31, 2006, we served approximately 1,100 PEO clients and employed approximately 25,300 employees pursuant to PEO contracts, as compared to 810 PEO clients and approximately 21,200 employees as of December 31, 2005. We serve our clients, who have employees located in 25 states and the District of Columbia, through a network of 38 branch offices in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Maryland, Delaware and North Carolina. We also have several smaller recruiting offices in our general market areas, which are under the direction of a branch office.
The human resource outsourcing industry is large and growing rapidly. Some of the key factors driving growth include the desire of businesses to outsource non-core business functions, to reduce regulatory compliance risk, to rationalize the number of service providers that they use, and to reduce costs by integrating human resource systems and processes.
The outsourcing of business processes represents a growing trend within the United States. By utilizing the expertise of outsourcing service providers, businesses are able to reduce processing costs and administrative burdens while at the same time offering competitive benefits for their employees. The technical capabilities, knowledge and operational expertise that we have built, along with our broad portfolio of services for clients, have enabled us to capitalize on the growing business processing outsourcing trend.
We believe that the small and medium-sized business segment of the human resource outsourcing market is particularly attractive because:
â€˘ this segment is large and has a low penetration rate by providers of outsourced comprehensive human resource services;
â€˘ small and medium-sized businesses typically have fewer in-house resources than larger businesses and, as a result, are generally more dependent on their service providers;
â€˘ quality of service, ease-of-use and responsiveness to clients' needs are key considerations of this business segment in selecting a service provider;
â€˘ small and medium-sized businesses generally do not require customized solutions, enabling service providers to achieve significant economies of scale through an integrated technology and service platform; and
â€˘ this segment is generally characterized by a relatively high client retention rate and lower client acquisition costs.
Our Strategic Approach
Our long-term goal is to become the leading provider of human resource outsourcing services for small and medium-sized businesses. We seek to differentiate our strategic position by offering a full spectrum of PEO and staffing services. We believe that the integrated nature of our service platform assists our clients and customers in successfully aligning and strengthening their organizational structure to meet the demands of their businesses. In pursuit of this goal, we have adopted the operating and growth strategies described below to provide the framework for our future growth, while maintaining the quality and integrity of our current service offerings.
â€˘ Provide a broad scope of services. We provide our clients with a broad range of human resource management tools and professional services that meet their critical human resource needs. We believe that most human resource service providers offer discrete services, requiring client companies to engage and manage multiple vendors in order to obtain a comprehensive human resource management solution. Companies that purchase services from multiple vendors typically fail to realize the benefits and economies of scale of having a single, integrated source of human resource information. Our comprehensive solutions allow our clients to maximize the value realized from integrating information and establishing a partnership with a single vendor to address all of their human resource needs. We believe that the aggregate cost of purchasing discrete services from multiple vendors is greater than the cost of purchasing our integrated solution, such that we can offer cost savings and managerial efficiencies to our clients.
â€˘ Promote a decentralized and autonomous management philosophy and structure. We hire senior-level managers to oversee, develop and expand our business at the branch-office level. We believe that highly experienced senior-level branch managers possess the skill set to handle the day-to-day demands of our business and still be proactive in solving client needs and focusing on further business development. We believe that by making significant investments in the best management talent available, within their respective areas of expertise, we can leverage the value of this investment many times over. We have also found that this philosophy facilitates our ability to attract and retain additional experienced senior-level managers to oversee our branch offices.
â€˘ Motivate employees through a competitive compensation package. We offer a very competitive base salary structure at the branch-office level and provide the opportunity to earn additional profit sharing on a quarterly basis. This profit sharing is earned by each branch-level employee based upon branch office profitability after achieving certain minimum profitability standards. Our risk managers have an opportunity to earn incentive compensation based upon the workers' compensation claims experience of their specific client base. All profit sharing and incentive compensation measures are tangible and objective, with few subjective components.
â€˘ Control workers' compensation costs through effective risk management. We are committed to the proactive mitigation of workers' compensation risk through stringent underwriting and disciplined management processes. Our chief executive officer defines and maintains our strict underwriting standards. Our underwriting process begins with the selection of only the best candidate companies with which to work. Next, our professional risk managers in the field corroborate the underwriting data by assessing the candidate's operating culture, workplace safety standards and human resource administration philosophies, including compensation rates and benefit levels. If the candidate company satisfies all underwriting standards, then we accept the company and immediately implement a plan to further strengthen their workplace safety standards and practices. If the client's safe-work culture or adherence to workplace safety procedures declines to unsatisfactory levels, we will terminate the relationship under the terms of our contract.
â€˘ Support, strengthen and expand branch office operations. We believe that increasing the penetration of our existing markets is an effective and cost-efficient means of growth as we are able to capitalize on our reputation and growing brand awareness in the territories in which we operate. We believe that there is substantial opportunity to further penetrate these territories. We intend to increase our penetration in our existing markets by continued growth through the effective use of insurance broker networks, referrals from current clients and marketing efforts within the local business community.
â€˘ Increase client utilization of our services. We believe that we will be able to continue to maintain our average level of professional service fees per client employee and improve client retention as our clients more fully utilize our current service offerings, including cross selling between staffing, PEO and permanent placement. We invest substantial time integrating our services into our client organizations to optimize their effectiveness and measure their results. Our long-term partnership philosophy provides us with the opportunity to expand our PEO and staffing services.
â€˘ Enhance management information systems. We continue to invest in developing our information technology infrastructure. We believe that our platform gives us a competitive advantage by allowing us to provide a high level of flexibility in meeting a variety of demands of our small and medium-sized business clients on a cost-effective basis. Furthermore, we believe that our current technology platform is capable of supporting our planned development of new business units and increased market share in the foreseeable future.
â€˘ Penetrate new markets. We intend to open additional branch offices in new geographic markets as opportunities arise. Since the beginning of 2003, we have opened four new offices in California to expand our presence in select geographic markets, including Bakersfield, Fresno, Redding and San Diego. We have developed a well-defined approach to geographic expansion which we will use as a guide for entering new markets.
â€˘ Pursue strategic acquisitions. Since our initial public offering in June 1993, we have completed 23 acquisitions of complementary businesses. In 2004, we completed the acquisition of certain assets of SRTC, a staffing services company with nine offices in Central Washington, Eastern Oregon and Southern Idaho. Effective January 1, 2006, we acquired certain assets of Pro HR, LLC, a privately held PEO company with three offices, two of which are in Idaho and one in Western Colorado. In order to increase our client base, expand our presence in existing markets, enter new markets and broaden our service offerings, we may continue to pursue strategic acquisitions, particularly in the staffing area.
Our services are typically provided under a variety of contractual arrangements through which we offer a continuum of proactive human resource management services. While some services are more frequently associated with our PEO arrangements, our expertise in such areas as safety services and personnel-related regulatory compliance may also be used by our staffing services customers. Our human resource management services are built upon the following five areas of expertise:
â€˘ Payroll Processing. For both our PEO and staffing services employees, we assist our clients in managing employment-related administration by providing payroll processing, employment-related tax filings and administration. These services are administered at each branch, as well as centralized at our headquarters in Vancouver, Washington.
â€˘ Employee Benefits and Administration. We assist our PEO clients in retaining the best employees for their businesses by helping them obtain, at their cost, comprehensive health benefits, including medical, dental and vision benefits, life and accident insurance, short-term and long-term disability. We also provide, at no cost to our PEO Clients and our staffing employees, a 401(k) retirement savings plan and a Section 125 cafeteria plan.
â€˘ Human Resource Management. We focus on developing and implementing a client-specific proactive human resource management system for each PEO client company. Through these efforts, clients achieve a more productive workforce through the disciplined application of standards for hiring and firing. Specifically, we assist our clients in attracting the right people by providing recruitment best practices, job description development, skills testing, salary information, drug testing, interview guidelines and assistance, evaluating job applications and references and compliance with a broad range of employment regulations.
â€˘ Risk Management. We focus on developing and implementing a client-specific proactive risk management program so as to further mitigate risk of injury associated with workplace practices. These efforts enable our clients and us to achieve a reduction in accidents and workers' compensation claims. We provide such tactical services as safety training and safety manuals for both workers and supervisors, job-site visits and meetings, improvements in workplace procedures and equipment to further reduce the risk of injury, compliance with OSHA requirements, environmental regulations, and workplace regulations of the U.S. Department of Labor and state agencies and leading accident investigations. We have at least one risk manager available at each branch office to perform workplace safety assessments for each prospective client and to implement systems to improve work practices. All risk managers report directly to our Chief Executive Officer. Each risk manager has the authority to cancel our business relationship with any customer or client company.
â€˘ Workers' Compensation Coverage. We assist our clients in protecting their businesses from employment-related injury claims by providing workers' compensation coverage. Through our third-party administrators, we provide claims management services for our PEO clients. We work aggressively to manage and reduce job injury claims, including identifying fraudulent claims and taking advantage of our staffing services to return injured workers to active employment earlier. As a result of our efforts to manage workers' compensation costs, we are often able to reduce our clients' overall expenses arising out of job-related injuries and insurance.
PEO Services . In a PEO services arrangement, we enter into a contract to become a co-employer of the clientâ€™s existing workforce and assume responsibility for some or all of the human resource management responsibilities, including payroll and payroll taxes, employee benefits, health insurance, workersâ€™ compensation coverage, workplace safety programs, compliance with federal and state employment laws, labor and workplace regulatory requirements, and related administrative responsibilities. We have the right to hire and fire our PEO employees, although the client remains responsible for day-to-day assignments, supervision and training and, in most cases, recruiting.
We began offering PEO services to Oregon customers in 1990 and subsequently expanded these services to other states, primarily California. In 2006, approximately 81% of our PEO service fee revenues were generated from customers in California with an additional 8% of revenues generated in Idaho.
We have entered into co-employer arrangements with a wide variety of clients, including companies involved in moving and shipping, professional firms, construction, retail, manufacturing and distribution businesses. PEO clients are typically small to mid-sized businesses with up to several hundred employees. None of our PEO clients represented more than 2% of our total revenues in 2006.
Prior to entering into a co-employer arrangement, we perform an analysis of the potential clientâ€™s actual personnel and workersâ€™ compensation costs based on information provided by the prospect. We introduce our workplace safety program and recommend improvements in procedures and equipment following a risk assessment of the prospectâ€™s facilities. The potential client must agree to implement recommended changes as part of the co-employer arrangement. We also offer financial incentives to PEO clients to maintain a safe-work environment.
Our standard PEO services agreement typically provides for an initial term of one year with automatic renewal for one-year periods. Our agreements generally permit cancellation by either party upon 30 daysâ€™ written notice. In addition, we may terminate the agreement at any time for specified reasons, including nonpayment or failure to follow our workplace safety program.
The form of PEO services agreement also provides for indemnification of us by the client against losses arising out of any default by the client under the agreement, including failure to comply with any employment-related, health and safety, or immigration laws or regulations. We require our PEO clients to maintain comprehensive liability coverage in the amount of $1.0 million for acts of our work-site employees. Although no claims exceeding such policy limits have been paid by us to date, the possibility exists that claims for amounts in excess of sums available to us through indemnification or insurance may be asserted in the future, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Staffing Services . Our staffing services include on-demand or short-term staffing assignments, contract staffing, long-term or indefinite-term on-site management, direct placement and human resource administration. Short-term staffing involves demands for employees caused by such factors as seasonality, fluctuations in customer demand, vacations, illnesses, parental leave and special projects without incurring the ongoing expense and administrative responsibilities associated with recruiting, hiring and retaining additional permanent employees. As more and more companies focus on effectively managing variable costs and reducing fixed overhead, the use of employees on a short-term basis allows firms to utilize the "just-in-time" approach for their personnel needs, thereby converting a portion of their fixed personnel costs to a variable expense.
Contract staffing refers to our responsibilities to provide employees for our clients for a period of more than three months or an indefinite period. This type of arrangement often involves outsourcing an entire department in a large corporation or providing the workforce for a large project.
In an on-site management arrangement, we place an experienced manager on site at a client's place of business. The manager is responsible for conducting all recruiting, screening, interviewing, testing, hiring and employee placement functions at the client's facility for a long-term or indefinite period.
Direct placement services involve fee-based search efforts for specific employee candidates at the request of our PEO clients, staffing customers or other companies.
Our staffing services customers operate in a broad range of businesses, including agriculture-based companies, electronic manufacturers, transportation and logistics companies, food processors, professional firms and construction. Such customers generally range in size from small local firms to companies with international operations that use our services on a domestic basis. None of our staffing services customers represented more than 3% of our total revenues in 2006.
In 2006, the light industrial sector generated approximately 83% of our staffing services revenues, while clerical office staff accounted for 13% of such revenues and technical personnel represented the balance of 4%. Our light industrial workers perform such tasks as operation of machinery, manufacturing, loading and shipping, site preparation for special events, construction-site cleanup and janitorial services. Technical personnel include electronic parts assembly workers and designers of electronic parts.
We employ a variety of methods to recruit our work force for staffing services, including among others, referrals by existing employees, online job boards, our Web site for job postings, newspaper advertising, and marketing brochures distributed at colleges and vocational schools. The employee application process may include an interview, skills assessment test, reference verification, drug screening, criminal background checks and pre-employment physicals. The recruiting of qualified employees requires more effort when unemployment rates are low. We use a comprehensive pre-employment screening test to ensure that applicants are appropriately qualified for employment.
Our staffing services employees are not under our direct control while working at a customer's business. We have not experienced any significant liability due to claims arising out of negligent acts or misconduct by our staffing services employees. Claims could be asserted against us that may exceed our liability insurance coverage, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Sales and Marketing
Our sales and marketing efforts are led by our branch managers and a small team of sales professionals, coupled with strong ties with the insurance brokerage community. Our marketing efforts are principally focused on branch-level development of local business relationships. On a regional and national level, efforts are made to expand and align our services to fulfill the needs of local customers with multiple locations, which may include using our on-site personnel and the opening of additional offices to better serve a customer's broader geographic needs. We also rely on an extensive network of insurance brokers for referrals for PEO services, particularly in California, in exchange for an ongoing fee as a very small percentage of payroll. Business development is the primary function of our branch managers.
All prospective clients are evaluated individually on the basis of total predicted profitability. This analysis takes into account workers' compensation risk and claims history, unemployment claims history and creditworthiness. The workers' compensation risk profile also includes an assessment of the prospect's internal culture regarding workplace safety, compensation rates and benefits provided to its employees.
Management Information Systems
We perform all functions associated with payroll administration through our internal management information system. Each branch office performs payroll data entry functions and maintains an independent database of employees and customers, as well as payroll and invoicing records. All processing functions are centralized at our corporate headquarters in Vancouver, Washington.
We have completed 23 acquisitions since our initial public offering in June 1993. Our acquisition targets are typically traditional light industrial staffing companies. We have acquired PEO companies less frequently due to underwriting issues associated with an acquisition target's existing customers; we prefer to apply our own underwriting criteria prior to establishing a business relationship with a PEO customer. Due to the current concentration of our operations in California and Oregon, our acquisition plans will likely focus on expanding our geographic footprint into Utah, Colorado, Nevada and Arizona. There can be no assurance, however, that any additional transactions will be consummated in the future.
The staffing services and PEO businesses are characterized by intense competition. The staffing services market includes competitors of all sizes, including national competitors such as Manpower, Inc. and Kelly Services, Inc., that have substantially greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do. In addition to national companies, we compete with numerous regional and local firms for both customers and employees. There are relatively few barriers to entry into the staffing services business. The principal competitive factors in the staffing services industry are price, the ability to provide qualified workers in a timely manner and the monitoring of job performance.
We may face additional PEO competition in the future from new entrants to the field, including other staffing services companies, payroll processing companies and insurance companies. Certain PEO companies that periodically compete with us in the same markets have greater financial and marketing resources than we do, such as Administaff, Inc., Gevity HR, Inc., and Paychex, Inc., among others. Competition in the PEO industry is based largely on price, although service and quality can also provide competitive advantages. A significant limiting factor to the growth of the PEO industry is the perception of potential clients that they have the capacity to handle human resource issues internally. We believe that our past growth in PEO service fee revenues is attributable to our ability to provide small and medium-sized companies with the opportunity to reduce workers' compensation costs and to provide enhanced benefits to their employees while reducing their overall personnel administration costs. Our competitive advantage may be adversely affected by a substantial increase in the costs of maintaining our self-insured workers' compensation program, or changes in the regulatory environment, particularly in California. A general market decrease in the level of workersâ€™ compensation insurance premiums may also decrease demand for PEO services among some prospective client companies.
William W. Sherertz has acted as Chief Executive Officer of the Company since 1980. He has also been a director of the Company since 1980, and was appointed President of the Company in March 1993. Mr. Sherertz also serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors.
Michael L. Elich joined the Company in October 2001 as Director of Business Development. He was appointed Vice President and Chief Operating Officer in May 2005. From 1995 to 2001, Mr. Elich served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Skills Resource Training Center, a staffing services company with offices in Oregon, Washington and Idaho that we acquired effective January 1, 2004.
Michael D. Mulholland joined the Company in August 1994 as Vice President-Finance and Secretary and was appointed to the additional position of Treasurer in May 2005. From 1988 to 1994, Mr. Mulholland was employed by Sprouse-Reitz Stores Inc. ("Sprouse"), a former Nasdaq-listed retail company, serving as its Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary. Prior to Sprouse, Mr. Mulholland held senior management positions with Lamb-Weston, Inc., a food processing company, from 1985 to 1988, and Keil, Inc., a regional retail company, from 1978 to 1985. Mr. Mulholland, a certified public accountant on inactive status, was also employed by Touche Ross & Co., now known as Deloitte & Touche LLP.
Gregory R. Vaughn joined the Company in July 1997 as Operations Manager. Mr. Vaughn was appointed Vice President in January 1998. Prior to joining Barrett, Mr. Vaughn was Chief Executive Officer of Insource America, Inc., a privately-held human resource management company headquartered in Portland, Oregon, since 1996. Mr. Vaughn has also held senior management positions with Sundial Time Systems, Inc. from 1995 to 1996 and Continental Information Systems, Inc. from 1990 to 1994. Previously, Mr. Vaughn was employed as a technology consultant by Price Waterhouse LLP, now known as PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.
James D. Miller joined the Company in January 1994 as Controller. From 1991 to 1994, he was the Corporate Accounting Manager for Christensen Motor Yacht Corporation. Mr. Miller, a certified public accountant on inactive status, was employed by Price Waterhouse LLP, now known as PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, from 1987 to 1991.
Thomas J. Carley owns 21800 shares
James B. Hicks, Ph.D. owns 17,250 shares
Roger L. Johnson owns 100 Shares
Jon L. Justesen owns 20,400 Shares
Anthony Meeker owns 14175 shares
Thomas J. Carley earned 12,000 in 2006.
James B. Hicks, Ph.D. earned 12,000 in 2006.
Roger L. Johnson earned 2006 in 2006
Jon L. Justesen earned 14578 in 2006.
Anthony Meeker earned 12000 in 2006
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION FROM LATEST 10K
We provide human resource management services, comprised of staffing services and PEO services. We generate staffing services revenues primarily from short-term staffing, contract staffing, on-site management and direct placement services. Our PEO service fees are generated from contractual agreements with our PEO clients under which we become a co-employer of our client's workforce with responsibility for some or all of the client's human resource functions. We recognize revenues from our staffing services for all amounts invoiced, including direct payroll, employer payroll-related taxes, workers' compensation coverage and a service fee (equivalent to a mark-up percentage). PEO service fee revenues are recognized on a net basis in accordance with Emerging Issues Task Force No. 99-19, " Reporting Revenues Gross as a Principal Versus Net as an Agent " ("EITF No. 99-19"). As such, our PEO service fee revenues represent the gross margin generated from our PEO services after deducting the amounts invoiced to PEO customers for direct payroll expenses such as salaries, wages, health insurance and employee out-of-pocket expenses incurred incidental to employment. These amounts are also excluded from cost of revenues. PEO service fees also include amounts invoiced to our clients for employer payroll-related taxes and workers' compensation coverage.
Through centralized operations at our headquarters in Vancouver, Washington, we prepare invoices weekly for our staffing services customers and following the end of each payroll processing cycle for PEO clients. We invoice our customers and clients as each payroll is processed. Payment terms for staffing customers are generally 30 days, while PEO clients' invoices are generally due on the invoice date.
Our business is concentrated in California and Oregon and we expect to continue to derive a majority of our revenues from these markets in the future. Revenues generated in our California and Oregon offices accounted for 74% of our total revenues in 2006, 74% in 2005 and 72% in 2004. Consequently, any weakness in economic conditions or changes in the regulatory environments in these regions could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
We offer cash safety incentives to certain PEO clients for maintaining safe-work practices in order to minimize workplace injuries. The cash incentive is based on a percentage of annual payroll and is paid annually to customers who meet predetermined workers' compensation claims cost objectives. Safety incentive payments are made only after closure of all workers' compensation claims incurred during the customer's contract period. The safety incentive expense is also netted against PEO revenues on our statements of operations.
Our cost of revenues is comprised of direct payroll costs for staffing services, employer payroll-related taxes and employee benefits and workers' compensation. Direct payroll costs represent the gross payroll earned by staffing services employees based on salary or hourly wages. Payroll taxes and employee benefits consist of the employer's portion of Social Security and Medicare taxes, federal unemployment taxes, state unemployment taxes and staffing services employee reimbursements for materials, supplies and other expenses, which are paid by the customer. Workers' compensation expense consists primarily of the costs associated with our self-insured workers' compensation program, such as claims reserves, claims administration fees, legal fees, state administrative agency fees and excess insurance costs for catastrophic injuries. We also maintain separate workers' compensation insurance policies for employees working in states where we are not self-insured.
The largest portion of workers' compensation expense is the cost of workplace injury claims. When an injury occurs and is reported to us, our respective independent third-party claims administrator ("TPA") analyzes the details of the injury and develops a case reserve, which is the TPA's estimate of the cost of the claim based on similar injuries and their professional judgment. We then record or accrue an expense and a corresponding liability based upon our estimate of the ultimate claim cost. As cash payments are made by our TPA against specific case reserves, the accrued liability is reduced by the corresponding payment amount. The TPA also reviews existing injury claims on an on-going basis and adjusts the case reserves as new or additional information for each claim becomes available. We have established an additional reserve for both future unanticipated increases in costs ("adverse loss development") of the claims reserves for open claims and for claims incurred but not reported related to prior and current periods. We believe our operational policies and internal claims reporting system help to limit the occurrence of unreported incurred claims.
Selling, general and administrative expenses represent both branch office and corporate-level operating expenses. Branch operating expenses consist primarily of branch office staff payroll and personnel related costs, advertising, rent, office supplies, depreciation and branch incentive compensation. Corporate-level operating expenses consist primarily of executive and office staff payroll and personnel related costs, professional and legal fees, travel, depreciation, occupancy costs, information systems costs and executive and corporate staff incentive compensation.
Amortization of intangible assets consists of the amortization of software costs, and covenants not to compete, which are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which range from two to ten years.
Critical Accounting Policies
We have identified the following policies as critical to our business and the understanding of our results of operations. For a detailed discussion of the application of these and other accounting policies, see Note 1 to the audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 15 of this report. Note that the preparation of this Annual Report on Form 10-K requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Self-Insured Workers' Compensation Reserves . We are self-insured for workers' compensation coverage in a majority of our employee work sites in Oregon, California, Maryland and Delaware and for staffing services only in Washington. The estimated liability for unsettled workers' compensation claims represents our best estimate, which includes an evaluation of information provided by our third-party administrators for workers' compensation claims and, in part, an annual actuarial analysis from an independent actuary. Included in the claims liabilities are case reserve estimates for reported losses, plus additional amounts based on projections for incurred but not reported claims, anticipated increases in case reserve estimates and additional claims administration expenses. These estimates are continually reviewed and adjustments to liabilities are reflected in current operating results as they become known. We believe that the difference between amounts recorded for our estimated liabilities and the possible range of costs to settle related claims is not material to results of operations; nevertheless, it is reasonably possible that adjustments required in future periods may be material to results of operations.
Safety Incentives Liability . Our accrued safety incentives represent cash incentives paid to certain PEO client companies for maintaining safe-work practices in order to minimize workplace injuries. The incentive is based on a percentage of annual payroll and is paid annually to customers who meet predetermined workersâ€™ compensation claims cost objectives. Safety incentive payments are made only after closure of all workersâ€™ compensating claims incurred during the customerâ€™s contract period. The liability is estimated and accrued each month based upon the then-current amount of the customerâ€™s estimated workersâ€™ compensation claims reserves as established by the Companyâ€™s third party administrator.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts . We are required to make estimates of the collectibility of accounts receivables. Management analyzes historical bad debts, customer concentrations, customer creditworthiness, current economic trends and changes in the customers' payment tendencies when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts. If the financial condition of our customers deteriorates, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances may be required.
Intangible Assets and Goodwill . We assess the recoverability of intangible assets and goodwill annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value might be impaired. Factors that are considered include significant underperformance relative to expected historical or projected future operating results, significant negative industry trends and significant change in the manner of use of the acquired assets. Management's current assessment of the carrying value of intangible assets and goodwill indicates there was no impairment as of December 31, 2006. If these estimates or their related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for these assets, as of the date of our annual assessment on December 31.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements and their potential effect on the Company's results of operations and financial condition, refer to Note 1 in the Notes to the Financial Statements beginning at page F-7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Statements in this Item or in Item 1 of this report which are not historical in nature, including discussion of economic conditions and favorable trends in the Companyâ€™s market areas and effect on revenue growth, the potential for and effect of past and future acquisitions, the effect of changes in the Companyâ€™s mix of services on gross margin, the adequacy of the Companyâ€™s workers' compensation reserves and allowance for doubtful accounts, the effect of the Company's becoming self-insured for certain business risks, the effectiveness of the Company's management information systems, payment of future dividends and the availability of financing and working capital to meet the Companyâ€™s funding requirements, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company or industry to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors with respect to the Company include difficulties associated with integrating acquired businesses and clients into the Companyâ€™s operations, economic trends in the Companyâ€™s service areas, material deviations from expected future workersâ€™ compensation claims experience, the effect of changes in the workersâ€™ compensation regulatory environment in one or more of the Companyâ€™s primary markets, collectibility of accounts receivable, the carrying values of deferred income tax assets and goodwill, which may be affected by the Companyâ€™s future operating results, the availability of capital or letters of credit necessary to meet state-mandated surety deposit requirements for maintaining the Company's status as a qualified self-insured employer for workers' compensation coverage, and the use of $73 million in cash and marketable securities, among others. The Company disclaims any obligation to update any such factors or to publicly announce the result of any revisions to any of the forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect future events or developments.
Years Ended December 31, 2006 and 2005
Net income for 2006 amounted to $16.3 million, an improvement of 30.8% or $3.8 million over net income of $12.5 million for 2005. The improvement for 2006 was primarily due to higher gross margin dollars as a result of significant growth in our PEO business, partially offset by higher selling, general and administrative expenses. Diluted earnings per share for 2006 was $1.40 compared to $1.21 for 2005. The percentage increase in net income for 2006 exceeded the increase in diluted earnings per share due to the dilutive effect of our follow-on offering of Common Stock completed in early August 2005. The Company's improved operating results continue to reflect, in part, growing market acceptance of the business process outsourcing model, market share gains owing to strong branch-level management and the competitive advantage of offering a broad array of human resource management services through its PEO arrangements. The trend toward normalization of market conditions for California workersâ€™ compensation insurance initiated by limited legislative reforms over the past few years has had little effect on our PEO growth rates due to the increasing market acceptance of our broad array of human resource management services. We expect this favorable trend to continue for the foreseeable future.
Revenues for 2006 totaled $259.2 million, an increase of approximately $27.8 million or 12.0%, which reflects significant growth in the Companyâ€™s PEO service fee revenue, partially offset by a small decline in staffing services revenue. PEO service fee revenue increased approximately $34.4 million or 34.0% over 2005 primarily due to increased demand for the Company's broad array of competitively priced human resource management services that satisfy customers' needs and to the incremental fee revenue generated by the January 1, 2006 acquisition of Pro HR, which represented $15.8 million or 56.8% of the total increase. At December 31, 2006, the Company had approximately 1,100 PEO clients as compared to approximately 810 PEO clients at December 31, 2005. Management believes that the favorable trend in PEO revenues will continue for the foreseeable future. Staffing services revenue declined approximately $6.6 million or 5.1% from 2005. During 2006, the Company served approximately 1,800 staffing services customers, which compares to approximately 2,000 customers during 2005. The decrease in staffing services revenues reflects decreased business activity with certain customers owing to their size of operation, as well as customers whose demand for the Company's services declined. Management expects demand for the Company's staffing services will continue to reflect overall economic conditions in its market areas.
Gross margin for 2006 totaled approximately $55.6 million, which represented an increase of $9.8 million or 21.4% over 2005, primarily due to the 12.0% increase in revenues. The gross margin percent increased from 19.8% of revenues for 2005 to 21.4% for 2006. The increase in the gross margin percentage was due to lower direct payroll costs and lower workers' compensation expense, offset in part by higher payroll taxes and benefits, all expressed as a percent of revenues. The decline in direct payroll costs, as a percentage of revenues, from 41.9% for 2005 to 35.8% for 2006 reflects the shift in the overall mix of services from staffing services to PEO services in the Companyâ€™s customer base and the effect of each customer's unique mark-up percent. Workers' compensation expense, as a percent of revenues, declined from 10.7% in 2005 to 10.5% in 2006. Workers' compensation expense for 2006 totaled $27.2 million, which compares to $24.7 million for 2005. The moderate increase in workersâ€™ compensation expense in total dollars was generally due to higher administrative costs of the Company's self-insured workers' compensation program offset in part by lower overall claim costs due to a lower claim incidence rate, which reflects the Company's underwriting standards and risk management practices. The increase in payroll taxes and benefits, as a percentage of revenues, from 27.6% for 2005 to 32.3% for 2006, was largely due to the effect of significant growth in PEO services, offset in part by slightly lower effective state unemployment tax rates in various states in which the Company operates as compared to 2005. We expect gross margin as a percentage of total revenues to continue to be influenced by fluctuations in the mix between staffing and PEO services, as well as the adequacy of our estimates for workersâ€™ compensation liabilities.
In connection with our self-insured workers' compensation program, we have maintained an excess workers' compensation policy that limits the financial effect of costly workers' compensation claims. Effective January 1, 2004, the self-insured retention or deductible was $1.0 million per occurrence and remained as such through 2006, with a moderate decline in the premium cost per $100 of payroll. Effective January 1, 2007, the Company incorporated a wholly-owned fully licensed captive insurance company, which will participate in providing BBSI with excess workersâ€™ compensation and other insurance coverages. Management expects the captive insurance company will provide cost-effective opportunities to participate in more competitive insurance markets and provide additional flexibility in risk management. Including our captive insurance company (i.e., on a consolidated basis) our self-insured retention is $5.0 million per occurrence, effective January 1, 2007.
Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expenses consist of compensation and other expenses incident to the operation of our headquarters and our branch offices and the marketing of our services. SG&A for 2006 amounted to approximately $31.6 million, an increase of $5.9 million or 23.0% over 2005. The increase over 2005 was primarily attributable to increases in branch management personnel and related expenses as a result of growth in the Companyâ€™s PEO business and to the incremental SG&A expenses associated with the Pro HR acquisition, which represented $2.5 million or 42.4% of the increase. SG&A expenses, as a percentage of revenues, increased from 11.1% in 2005 to 12.2% in 2006.
On January 1, 2006, we adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123R, "Share-Based Payment" ("SFAS 123R"), which requires the grant-date fair value of all share-based payment awards, including employee stock options, to be recorded as employee compensation expense over the requisite service period. We applied the modified prospective transition method when we adopted SFAS 123R and, therefore, did not restate any prior periods. Effective with the close of business on December 30, 2005, the Company accelerated the vesting of all outstanding stock options to eliminate future compensation expense associated with those options under SFAS 123R. As a result of the accelerated vesting, during 2006, we recorded no incremental compensation expense as a result of adopting SFAS 123R. If we had accounted for our share-based payment awards under SFAS 123R during 2005, our compensation expense would have been approximately $1.7 million higher. The Company has not determined if it will grant future awards under its 2003 Stock Incentive Plan. For additional information about the adoption of SFAS 123R, refer to Note 1 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 15 of this report.
Other income for 2006 was $2.8 million compared to other income of $747,000 for 2005. The increase in other income for 2006 was primarily attributable to increased investment income earned on the Company's higher cash balances.
Depreciation and amortization totaled $1.3 million for 2006, which compares to $1.0 million for 2005. The increase in the depreciation and amortization expense level compared to 2005 was primarily due to a full year of depreciation expense on the Company-owned building housing the corporate headquarters acquired in September 2005.
Our effective income tax rate for 2006 was 35.9%, as compared to 37.3% for 2005. The lower 2006 effective rate was primarily attributable to a significant increase in Federal tax-exempt interest income.
At December 31, 2006, we had net deferred income tax assets of $3.2 million, which consist of temporary differences between taxable income for financial accounting and tax purposes, which will reduce taxable income in future years. Pursuant to GAAP, we are required to assess the realization of the deferred income tax assets as significant changes in circumstances may require adjustments during future periods. Although realization is not assured, management has concluded that it is more likely than not that the remaining net deferred income tax assets will be realized, principally based upon projected taxable income for the next two years. The amount of the net deferred income tax assets actually realized could vary, if there are differences in the timing or amount of future reversals of existing deferred income tax assets or changes in the actual amounts of future taxable income as compared to operating forecasts. If our operating forecast is determined to no longer be reliable due to uncertain market conditions, our long-term forecast may require reassessment. As a result, in the future, a valuation allowance may be required to be established for all or a portion of the net deferred income tax assets. Such a valuation allowance could have a significant effect on our future results of operations and financial position.
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION FOR LATEST QUARTER
Barrett Business Services, Inc. (â€śBarrettâ€ť, the â€śCompanyâ€ť or â€śweâ€ť), a Maryland corporation, offers a comprehensive range of human resource management services to help small and medium-sized businesses manage the increasing costs and complexities of a broad array of employment-related issues. The Companyâ€™s principal services, professional employer organization (â€śPEOâ€ť) services and staffing services, assist its clients in leveraging their investment in human capital. The Company believes that the combination of these two principal services enables it to provide clients with a unique blend of services not offered by the Companyâ€™s competition. Barrettâ€™s platform of outsourced human resource management services is built upon expertise in payroll processing, employee benefits and administration, workersâ€™ compensation coverage, effective risk management and workplace safety programs, and human resource administration.
To provide PEO services to a client, the Company enters into a contract to become a co-employer of the clientâ€™s existing workforce and Barrett assumes responsibility for some or all of the clientâ€™s human resource management responsibilities. PEO services are normally used by organizations to satisfy ongoing human resource management needs and typically involve contracts with a minimum term of one year, renewable annually, which cover all employees at a particular work site. Staffing services include on-demand or short-term staffing assignments, long-term or indefinite-term contract staffing and comprehensive on-site management. The Companyâ€™s staffing services also include direct placement services, which involve fee-based search efforts for specific employee candidates at the request of PEO clients, staffing customers or other companies.
The Companyâ€™s ability to offer clients a broad mix of services allows Barrett to effectively become the human resource department and a strategic business partner for its clients. The Company believes its approach to human resource management services is designed to positively affect its clientsâ€™ business results by:
â€˘ allowing clients to focus on core business activities instead of human resource matters;
â€˘ increasing clientsâ€™ productivity by improving employee satisfaction and generating greater employee retention;
â€˘ reducing overall payroll expenses due to lower workersâ€™ compensation and health insurance costs; and
â€˘ assisting clients in complying with complex and evolving human resource-related regulatory and tax issues.
The Company serves a growing and diverse client base of small and medium-sized businesses in a wide variety of industries through a network of branch offices in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Maryland, Delaware and North Carolina. Barrett also has several smaller recruiting offices in its general market areas, which are under the direction of a branch office.
Three months ended September 30, 2007 and 2006
Net income for the third quarter of 2007 amounted to $6.3 million, an improvement of 12.9% or $720,000 over net income of $5.6 million for the third quarter of 2006. The improvement for the third quarter of 2007 was primarily due to higher gross margin dollars as a result of cost savings in workersâ€™ compensation expense and an increase in revenues, partially offset by higher selling, general and administrative expenses. Diluted earnings per share for the third quarter of 2007 was $.54 compared to $.48 for the comparable 2006 period.
Revenues for the third quarter of 2007 totaled $82.9 million, an increase of approximately $13.5 million or 19.5%, which reflects an increase in the Companyâ€™s staffing services revenue, and a slight increase in PEO service fee revenue. Staffing services revenue increased approximately $10.4 million or 31.1% over the comparable 2006 quarter primarily due to the acquisition of Strategic Staffing, Inc., effective July 2, 2007. Strategic Staffingâ€™s financial performance for the third quarter was consistent with managementâ€™s expectations. On a comparable branch office basis, i.e. without the effect of Strategic Staffing, staffing services revenues for the third quarter declined 6% or approximately $2.0 million from the comparable quarter in 2006. The decline in staffing services revenue was attributable to general economic conditions affecting our customersâ€™ business. Management expects demand for the Companyâ€™s staffing services will continue to reflect overall economic conditions in its market areas. PEO service fee revenue increased approximately $3.1 million or 8.6% over the 2006 third quarter primarily due to the net effect from the addition of new client companies, offset in part by a decline in business with existing PEO customers. General economic conditions are dampening the growth of our existing PEO customer base, but we continue to experience PEO revenue growth due to our ability to add new PEO customers.
Gross margin for the third quarter of 2007 totaled approximately $18.8 million, which represented an increase of $2.1 million or 12.8% over the third quarter of 2006, primarily due to higher revenues and an 8.0% decrease in workersâ€™ compensation costs. The gross margin percent decreased from 24.0% of revenues for the third quarter of 2006 to 22.7% for the third quarter of 2007 primarily due to higher direct payroll costs, offset in part by declines in payroll taxes and benefits and workersâ€™ compensation costs expressed as a percent of revenues. The increase in direct payroll costs, as a percentage of revenues, from 36.2% for the third quarter of 2006 to 43.0% for the third quarter of 2007 reflects the shift in the overall mix of services from PEO services to staffing services in the Companyâ€™s customer base primarily resulting from the acquisition of Strategic Staffing and the effect of each customerâ€™s unique mark-up percent. Workersâ€™ compensation expense, as a percent of revenues, declined from 10.4% in the third quarter of 2006 to 8.0% in the third quarter of 2007. Workersâ€™ compensation expense for the third quarter of 2007 totaled $6.6 million, compared to $7.2 million for the third quarter of 2006. This decrease was due to lower insurance premiums in states where the Company is not self-insured and to cost savings provided by AICE, the Companyâ€™s wholly owned captive insurance company. The potential annual savings from AICE could total up to $3.0 million (pre-tax) arising principally from more cost effective excess insurance premiums arising from an increase in the Companyâ€™s self-insured retention from $1.0 million to $5.0 million in the majority of states where the Company is self-insured. Management expects that its claims expense accrual methodology will remain unchanged, as AICE has adopted generally accepted accounting principles rather than statutory accounting principles. Beginning with the second quarter of 2007, the Company became self-administered for certain workersâ€™ compensation claims. The Companyâ€™s third-party administrator for all other workersâ€™ compensation claims also provides total software and administrative support for all claims. Management expects a modest savings in claims administration fees by self-administering certain claims. The decrease in payroll taxes and benefits, as a percentage of revenues, from 29.4% for the third quarter of 2006 to 26.3% for the third quarter of 2007, was largely due to the effect of growth in PEO services, offset in part by lower effective state unemployment tax rates in various states in which the Company operates as compared to the third quarter of 2006.
Selling, general and administrative (â€śSG&Aâ€ť) expenses for the third quarter of 2007 amounted to approximately $9.5 million, an increase of $1.2 million or 14.0% over the third quarter of 2006. The increase over the third quarter of 2006 was primarily attributable to the incremental SG&A expense associated with the Strategic Staffing acquisition, which represented $1.3 million, partially offset by slight decreases in comparable branch operating expenses resulting from the similar level of business in the third quarter of 2007 compared to the same quarter of 2006. SG&A expenses, as a percentage of revenues, declined from 12.0% in the third quarter of 2006 to 11.5% in the third quarter of 2007.
On January 1, 2006, we adopted SFAS 123R, which requires the grant-date fair value of all share-based payment awards, including employee stock options, to be recorded as employee compensation expense over the requisite service period. Effective with the close of business on December 30, 2005, the Company accelerated the vesting of all outstanding stock options to eliminate future compensation expense under SFAS 123R. As a result of the accelerated vesting, during the third quarter of 2007 and 2006, we recorded no incremental compensation expense. The Company has not determined if future awards under its 2003 Stock Incentive Plan will be made. For additional information about the adoption of SFAS 123R, refer to Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included herein. Other income for the third quarter of 2007 was $776,000 compared to $733,000 for the third quarter of 2006. The small increase in other income for the third quarter of 2007 was primarily attributable to increased investment income earned on the Companyâ€™s cash balances.