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Article by DailyStocks_admin    (05-15-08 06:30 AM)

Filed with the SEC from May 1 to May 7:

Advocat (AVCA)
Bristol Capital Advisors is withdrawing its two director nominees for election to Advocat's board. Bristol had planned to nominate Paul Kessler and Richard McKilligan.
Bristol made its decision in light of Advocat's inclusion of its shareholder proposal in its definitive proxy. Bristol says that the healthcare company's proposal offers a "meaningful method for shareholders to express their concerns about the company and management."
The investment firm previously had complained about deficiencies in the company's governance, and had hired an investment bank to review alternatives. In February, Bristol submitted a shareholder proposal that urged Advocat's board to sell or liquidate the company. It also criticized management's pay, which it viewed as too high.
Bristol owns 294,834 shares (5.13%).

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

Introductory Summary.
Advocat Inc. provides long-term care services to nursing home patients in eight states, primarily in the Southeast and Southwest. Unless the context indicates otherwise, references herein to “Advocat,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” include Advocat Inc. and all of our subsidiaries.
The long-term care profession encompasses a broad range of non-institutional and institutional services. For those among the elderly requiring temporary or limited special services, a variety of home care options exist. As needs for assistance in activities of daily living develop, assisted living facilities become the most viable and cost effective option. For those among the elderly requiring much more intensive care, skilled nursing facility care becomes the only viable option. We have chosen to focus primarily on our skilled nursing centers and to specialize in this aspect of the long term care continuum.
Our objective is to become the provider of choice of health care and related services to the elderly in the communities in which we operate. We will continue to implement our operating strategy of (i) providing a broad range of cost-effective elder care services; (ii) increasing occupancy in our nursing centers through physical plant improvements and an increased emphasis on marketing efforts; (iii) improving the quality of payor mix; and (iv) clustering our operations on a regional basis. Interwoven into our objectives and operating strategy is our mission:
• Committed to Compassion

• Striving for Excellence

• Serving Responsibly
Our principal executive offices are located at 1621 Galleria Boulevard, Brentwood, TN 37027. Our telephone number at that address is 615.771.7575, and our facsimile number is 615.771.7409. Our web-site is located at www.irinfo.com/AVC. The information on our web-site does not constitute part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Operating and Growth Strategy.
Our operating objective is to be the provider of choice of health care and related services to the elderly in the communities in which we operate. To achieve our objective we:
Provide a broad range of cost-effective services. Our objective is to provide a variety of services in a broad continuum of care which will meet the ever changing needs of the elderly. Our expanded service offering currently includes skilled nursing, comprehensive rehabilitation services, programming for Life Steps and Lighthouse units, other specialty programming and medical supply and nutritional support services. By addressing varying levels of acuity, we work to meet the needs of the elderly population we serve for a longer period of time and to establish a reputation as the provider of choice in a particular market. Furthermore, we believe we are able to deliver quality services cost-effectively, thereby expanding the elderly population base that can benefit from our services, including those not otherwise able to afford private-pay assisted living services.
Increase occupancy through physical plant improvements and emphasis on marketing efforts . We believe we can increase occupancy in our nursing homes through improved physical plants and an increased emphasis on and an improved program for attracting and retaining patients and residents. We emphasize strong corporate and regional support for local facility based marketing efforts.
Improve quality of payor mix. We believe we can improve profitability by improving the payor mix of our patients. Quality payor sources include Medicare, HMO, managed care and private pay. These payor sources typically provide a better margin per revenue dollar or patient day.
Cluster operations on a regional basis. We have developed regional concentrations of operations in order to achieve operating efficiencies, generate economies of scale and capitalize on marketing opportunities created by having multiple operations in a regional market area.

Key elements of our growth strategy are to:
Increase revenues and profitability at existing facilities. Our strategy includes increasing center revenues and profitability levels through increasing occupancy levels, improving quality payor mix, obtaining appropriate reimbursement and containing costs while continuing to provide high quality care. In addition to our facility renovation program, ongoing initiatives to promote higher occupancy levels and improved payor and case mixes at our nursing centers include programs to improve customer service, new contracts for insurance and other services, and units for specialized care services developed at certain centers.
Improve physical plants . Our nursing centers have an average age of approximately 31 years as of December 31, 2007. After a strategic review, management determined that renovating certain facilities offered the opportunity to improve occupancy, quality of care and profitability. Management developed a plan to identify those facilities with the greatest potential for benefit, and began the renovation program during 2005. We have completed major renovations at seven facilities and have renovations in progress at three facilities as of December 31, 2007. We completed one additional renovation in the first quarter of 2008 and plan to complete the remaining two renovations that are currently in progress by the third quarter of 2008. Major renovations result in significant cosmetic upgrades, including new flooring, wall coverings, lighting, ceilings and furniture throughout the facility. Renovations also usually include certain external work to improve curb appeal, such as concrete work, landscaping, roof and signage enhancements.
Development of additional specialty services . Our strategy includes the development of additional specialty units and programming in facilities that could benefit from these services. The specialty programming will vary depending on the needs of the specific marketplace, and may include Life Steps and Lighthouse Units and other specialty programming. These services allow our facilities to improve census and payor mix. A center specific assessment of the market is conducted related to specialty programming to determine if unmet needs exist as a predictor of the success of particular niche offerings.
Acquisition, leasing and development of new homes . We continue to pursue and investigate opportunities to acquire, lease or develop new facilities, focusing primarily on opportunities within our existing areas of operation. We have entered into an option agreement to purchase certain assets of a skilled nursing facility in West Virginia. We made an application to state regulatory authorities to allow us to operate the facility, and this application was approved in February 2008, subject to rights of appeal by contesting parties. Once final appeals, if any, are resolved, we intend to arrange financing and construct a new 90 bed replacement facility.
Nursing Centers and Services.
Advocat provides a broad range of long-term care services to the elderly including skilled nursing, ancillary health care services and assisted living. In addition to the nursing and social services usually provided in long-term care centers, we offer a variety of rehabilitative, nutritional, respiratory, and other specialized ancillary services. As of December 31, 2007, our continuing operations include 50 nursing centers containing 5,773 licensed nursing beds and 66 assisted living units.

Our nursing centers provide skilled nursing health care services, including room and board, nutrition services, recreational therapy, social services and housekeeping and laundry services. Our nursing centers dispense medications prescribed by the patients’ physicians, and a plan of care is developed by professional nursing staff for each resident. We also provide for the delivery of ancillary medical services at the nursing centers we operate. These specialty services include rehabilitation therapy services, such as audiology, speech, occupational and physical therapies, which are provided through licensed therapists and registered nurses, and the provision of medical supplies, nutritional support, infusion therapies and related clinical services. The significant majority of these services are provided using our internal resources and clinicians.
Within the framework of a nursing center, we may provide other specialty care, including:
Life Steps Unit. Twelve of our nursing centers have units designated as Life Steps Units, our designation for patients requiring short term rehabilitation following an incident such as a stroke or bone fracture. These units specialize in short term rehabilitation with the goal of returning the patient to their previous level of functionality. These units provide enhanced services with emphasis on upgraded amenities including electric beds, televisions, phones at bedside and feature a separate entrance for guests and visitors. The design and programming on the unit appeals to the generally younger resident who intends to return home following intensive rehabilitation. Specialized therapeutic treatment regimens include orthopedic rehabilitation, neurological rehabilitation and complex medical rehabilitation. While these patients generally have a shorter length of stay, the intensive level of rehabilitation generally results in higher levels of reimbursement.
Lighthouse Unit. Seventeen of our nursing centers have Lighthouse Units, our designation for advanced care for dementia related disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. The goal of the units is to provide a safe, homelike and supportive environment for cognitively impaired patients, utilizing an interdisciplinary team approach. Family and community involvement compliment structured programming in the secure environment instrumental in fostering as much resident independence as possible despite diminished capacity.
Assisted Living Units. Four of our nursing centers have units designated for assisted living patients, ranging in size from 2 to 35 units. These units may be a subset of the facility or a separate freestanding building on the nursing center campus. Services and accommodations include central dining facilities, recreational areas, social programs, housekeeping, laundry and maintenance service, emergency call systems, special features for handicapped persons and transportation to shopping and special events. Generally, basic care and support services can be offered more economically in an assisted living facility than either in a nursing home or through home health care assistance.
Other Specialty Programming. We implement other specialty programming based on a center’s specific needs. We have developed one adult day care center on the campus of a nursing center. We have developed specialty programming for bariatric patients (generally, patients weighing more than 350 pounds). These individuals have unique psychosocial and equipment needs.
We have complimented our traditional therapy services with programs that provide electrotherapy, ultrasound and shortwave diathermy therapy treatments that promote pain management, wound healing, continence improvement and contractures management, improving results of therapy treatments for our patients. We currently offer these treatment programs in 21 of our facilities.
Continuous Quality Improvement . We have in place a Continuous Quality Improvement (“CQI”) program, which is focused on identifying opportunities for improvement of all aspects of the care provided in a center, as well as overseeing the initiation and effectiveness of interventions. The CQI program was designed to meet accreditation standards and to exceed state and federal government regulations. We conduct monthly audits to monitor adherence to the standards of care established by the CQI program at each center which we operate. The facility administrator, with assistance from regional nursing personnel, is primarily responsible for adherence to our quality improvement standards. In that regard, the annual operational objectives established by each facility administrator include specific objectives with respect to quality of care. Performance of these objectives is evaluated quarterly by the regional vice president or manager, and each facility administrator’s incentive compensation is based, in part, on the achievement of the specified quality objectives. A major component of our CQI program is employee empowerment initiatives, with particular emphasis placed on selection, recruitment, retention and recognition programs. Our administrators and managers include employee retention and turnover goals in the annual facility, regional and personal objectives. We also have established a quality improvement committee consisting of nursing representatives from each region. This committee periodically reviews our quality improvement programs and conducts facility audits.

Organization . Our long-term care facilities are currently organized into six regions, each of which is supervised by a regional vice president. The regional vice president is generally supported by specialists in several functions, including nursing, human resources, marketing, receivable management and clerical, all of whom are employed by us. The day-to-day operations of each owned or leased nursing center are supervised by an on-site, licensed administrator. The administrator of each nursing center is supported by other professional personnel, including a medical director, who assists in the medical management of the facility, and a director of nursing, who supervises a staff of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and nurses aides. Other personnel include therapy, dietary, activities and social service, housekeeping, laundry and maintenance, and a business office staff. All personnel at the leased or owned facilities, including the administrators, are our employees.
Marketing.
At a local level, our sales and marketing efforts are designed to promote higher occupancy levels and optimal payor mix. We believe that the long-term care profession is fundamentally a local business in which both patients and residents and the referral sources for them are based in the immediate geographic area in which the facility is located. Our marketing plan and related support activities emphasize the role and performance of administrators, admissions coordinators and social services directors of each nursing center, all of whom are responsible for contacting various referral sources such as doctors, hospitals, hospital discharge planners, churches and various community organizations.
Administrators are evaluated based on their ability to meet specific goals and performance standards that are tied to compensation incentives. Our regional managers and marketing coordinators assist local marketing personnel and administrators in establishing relationships and follow-up procedures with such referral sources.
In addition to soliciting admissions from these sources, we emphasize involvement in community affairs in order to promote a public awareness of our nursing centers and services. We have ongoing family councils and community based “family night” functions where organizations come to the facility to educate the public on various topics such as Medicare benefits, powers of attorney, and other matters of interest. We also promote effective customer relations and seek feedback through family surveys. We typically host “open house” events once we complete a major renovation of a facility where people in the community are invited to visit and see the improvements. In addition, we have regional marketing coordinators to support the overall marketing program in each local facility, in order to promote higher occupancy levels and improved payor and case mixes at our nursing centers.
We have an internally-developed marketing program that focuses on the identification and provision of services needed by the community. The program assists each facility administrator in analysis of local demographics and competition with a view toward complementary service development. We believe that the primary referral area in the long-term care industry generally lies within a five-to-fifteen-mile radius of each facility depending on population density; consequently, local marketing efforts are more beneficial than broad-based advertising techniques.
Acquisitions and New Lease.
2007 Acquisition . Effective August 11, 2007, we purchased the leasehold interests and operations of seven skilled nursing facilities from Senior Management Services of America North Texas, Inc. (“SMSA” or “SMSA Acquisition”) for a price of approximately $10.0 million, including approximately $8.6 million in cash, the assumption of approximately $0.9 million in liabilities, and transaction costs of $0.5 million. These facilities include 1,266 licensed nursing beds, with 1,105 beds currently available for use. The SMSA facilities had unaudited revenues of approximately $52.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2006. The SMSA facilities are in our existing geographic and operational footprint and are expected to contribute to our growth strategy and existing base of operations.
Texas Facility . Effective November 1, 2007, we entered into a short term single facility lease with Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc (“Omega”) for a 102 bed skilled nursing center in Texas, and we are evaluating the possibility of entering into an agreement with Omega for the construction of a replacement facility. It is anticipated that we would supervise construction, with funding provided by Omega. Upon completion of construction, we would lease the facility from Omega under a lease agreement with an initial term of five years, with renewal options through 2035.
Divestitures.
We have undertaken several divestitures through sale of assets and lease terminations. The divested operations have generally been poor performing properties. Effective March 31, 2007, we terminated operations at a leased facility in Arkansas. The owner of the facility sold the property and we cooperated in an orderly transition to the new owner. In May 2006, we completed the sale of certain assets of eleven assisted facilities located in North Carolina for a sales price of $11.0 million. Proceeds from this transaction were used to pay transaction costs and repay debt. We closed one remaining North Carolina assisted living facility in April 2006, and are continuing our efforts to sell this property. In September 2007, we sold the bed license for the remaining North Carolina assisted living facility for a sales price of $183,000 and recognized a pretax gain on sale of discontinued operations of $45,000. We sold two nursing centers in Texas effective February 1, 2005.
In accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets,” our consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to reflect these divestitures as discontinued operations.
Nursing Center Profession.
We believe there are a number of significant trends within the long-term care industry that will support the continued growth of the nursing home segment of the long-term care industry. These trends are also likely to impact our business. These factors include:
Demographic trends. The primary market for our long-term health care services is comprised of persons aged 75 and older. This age group is one of the fastest growing segments of the United States population. As the number of persons aged 75 and over continues to grow, we believe that there will be corresponding increases in the number of persons who need skilled nursing.
Cost containment pressures. In response to rapidly rising health care costs, governmental and other third-party payors have adopted cost-containment measures to reduce admissions and encourage reduced lengths of stays in hospitals and other acute care settings. The federal government had previously acted to curtail increases in health care costs under Medicare by limiting acute care hospital reimbursement for specific services to pre-established fixed amounts. Other third-party payors have begun to limit reimbursement for medical services in general to predetermined reasonable charges, and managed care organizations (such as health maintenance organizations) are attempting to limit hospitalization costs by negotiating for discounted rates for hospital and acute care services and by monitoring and reducing hospital use. In response, hospitals are discharging patients earlier and referring elderly patients, who may be too sick or frail to manage their lives without assistance, to nursing homes where the cost of providing care is typically lower than hospital care. In addition, third-party payors are increasingly becoming involved in determining the appropriate health care settings for their insureds or clients based primarily on cost and quality of care.
Limited supply of centers. As the nation’s elderly population continues to grow, life expectancy continues to expand, and there continue to be limitations on granting Certificates of Need (“CON’s”) for new skilled nursing centers, so we believe that there will be continued demand for skilled nursing beds in the markets in which we operate. The majority of states have adopted CON or similar statutes requiring that prior to adding new skilled beds or any new services, or making certain capital expenditures, a state agency must determine that a need exists for the new beds or proposed activities. We believe that this CON process tends to restrict the supply and availability of licensed skilled nursing center beds. High construction costs, limitations on state and federal government reimbursement for the full costs of construction, and start-up expenses also act to restrict growth in the supply for such centers. At the same time, skilled nursing center operators are continuing to focus on improving occupancy and expanding services to include high acuity subacute patients, who require significantly higher levels of skilled nursing personnel and care.
Reduced reliance on family care. Historically, the family has been the primary provider of care for seniors. We believe that the increase in the percentage of women in the work force, the reduction of average family size and the increased mobility in society will reduce the role of the family as the traditional care-giver for aging parents. We believe that this trend will make it necessary for many seniors to look outside the family for assistance as they age.
Competition.
The long-term care business is highly competitive. We face direct competition for additional centers, and our centers face competition for employees, patients and residents. Some of our present and potential competitors for acquisitions are significantly larger and have or may obtain greater financial and marketing resources. Competing companies may offer new or more modern centers or new or different services that may be more attractive to patients, residents or facility owners than some of the services we offer.
The nursing centers operated by us compete with other facilities in their respective markets, including rehabilitation hospitals, other “skilled” and personal care residential facilities. In the few urban markets in which we operate, some of the long-term care providers with which our facilities compete are significantly larger and have or may obtain greater financial and marketing resources than our facilities. Some of these providers are not-for-profit organizations with access to sources of funds not available to our centers. Construction of new long-term care facilities near our existing centers could adversely affect our business. We believe that the most important competitive factors in the long-term care business are: a facility’s local reputation with referral sources, such as acute care hospitals, physicians, religious groups, other community organizations, managed care organizations, and a patient’s family and friends; physical plant condition; the ability to identify and meet particular care needs in the community; the availability of qualified personnel to provide the requisite care; and the rates charged for services. There is limited, if any, price competition with respect to Medicaid and Medicare patients, since revenues for services to such patients are strictly controlled and are based on fixed rates and cost reimbursement principles. Although the degree of success with which our centers compete varies from location to location, we believe that our centers generally compete effectively with respect to these factors.
Payor Sources.
We classify our revenues from patients and residents into three major categories: Medicaid, Medicare and private pay. In addition to traditional Medicaid revenues, we include within the Medicaid classification revenues from other programs established to provide benefits to those in need of financial assistance in the securing of medical services. Medicare revenues include revenues received under both Part A and Part B of the Medicare program. We classify payments from individuals who pay directly for services without government assistance as private pay revenue. The private pay classification also includes revenues from commercial insurers, HMOs, and other charge-based payment sources. Veterans Administration payments are included in private pay and are made pursuant to renewable contracts negotiated with these payors.

Reimbursement.
A significant portion of our revenues are derived from government-sponsored health insurance programs. Our nursing centers derive revenues under Medicaid, Medicare and private pay sources. We employ specialists in reimbursement at the corporate level to monitor regulatory developments, to comply with reporting requirements, and to ensure that proper payments are made to our operated nursing centers. It is generally recognized that all government-funded programs have been and will continue to be under cost containment pressures, but the extent to which these pressures will affect our future reimbursement is unknown.
Certain per person annual Medicare Part B reimbursement limits on therapy services became effective January 1, 2006. Subject to certain exceptions, the limits impose a $1,810 per patient annual ceiling on physical and speech therapy services, and a separate $1,810 per patient annual ceiling on occupational therapy services. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) established an exception process to permit therapy services in certain situations, and the majority of services provided by us are reimbursed under the exceptions. In December 2007, Congress passed the Medicare, Medicaid and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, which includes an extension of the existing exceptions process through June 30, 2008. If the exception process is discontinued after June 2008, it is expected that the reimbursement limitations will reduce therapy revenues and negatively impact our operating results and cash flows.
In December 2006, Congress passed the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (TRHCA). The TRHCA reduces the maximum federal matching under Medicare provider assessments to 5.5% of aggregate Medicaid outlays. This reduction in funding will become effective for fiscal years beginning after January 1, 2008. This change is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations.

CEO BACKGROUND

William R. Council, III

President and Chief Executive Officer from March 2003 to present; Interim Chief Executive Officer from October 2002 to March 2003; Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary of the Company from March 5, 2001 to December 2002. Mr. Council is a Certified Public Accountant.

Raymond L. Tyler, Jr.

Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Company from December 2003 to present; Senior Vice President of Operations of the Company from October 2002 to December 2003; Vice President of Operations of the Company from January 2001 to October 2002.

L. Glynn Riddle, Jr.

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Secretary of the Company since December 2002. Mr. Riddle is a Certified Public Accountant.

COMPENSATION

Compensation Discussion and Analysis
Decisions on compensation of our senior executives are made by the compensation committee of our Board of Directors. The compensation committee consists of Mr. Brame, Mr. Hensley, Mr. Olson and Mr. O’Neil. Each member of the compensation committee is a non-employee director. It is the responsibility of the compensation committee to assure the Board that the executive compensation programs are reasonable and appropriate, meet their stated purpose and effectively serve our needs and the needs of our shareholders.

We believe that the executive compensation program should align the interests of shareholders and executives. Our primary objective is to provide high quality patient care while maximizing shareholder value. The compensation committee seeks to forge a strong link between our strategic business goals and our compensation goals. We believe our executive compensation program is consistent with this overall philosophy for all management levels. We believe that the more employees are aligned with our strategic objectives, the greater our success on both a short-term and long-term basis.
Our executive compensation program has been designed to support the overall strategy and objective of creating shareholder value by:
• Performance based . Emphasizing pay for performance by having a significant portion of executive compensation “at risk.”

• Retention . Providing compensation opportunities that attract and retain talented and committed executives on a long-term basis.

• Balance . Appropriately balancing the Company’s short-term and long-term business, financial and strategic goals.
In connection with this overall strategy, we also strive to give assurance of fair treatment and financial protection so that an executive will be able to identify and consider transactions that would be beneficial to the long term interests of shareholders but which might have a negative impact on the executive, without undue concern for his personal circumstances. A further consideration is to safeguard the business of the Company, including protection from competition and other adverse activities by the executive during and after employment.
The Company’s strategic goals are:
• Profitability . To maximize financial returns to its shareholders, in the context of providing high quality service.

• Quality . To achieve leadership in the provision of relevant and high quality health services.

• Stability . To be a desirable employer and a responsible corporate citizen.
In order to accomplish our objectives, the compensation committee strives to design its executive compensation in a way that when the Company meets or exceeds its annual operating goals, the annual executive pay targets (i.e., base salary plus incentive) are competitive with the compensation of similar U.S. public health care companies having similar revenues.
Compensation Consultant
In prior years, the compensation committee has engaged Compensation Strategies, Inc. to help the compensation committee with its compensation program design, review senior executive compensation, prepare comprehensive competitive compensation analyses for our named executive officers, and make suggestions regarding the components of compensation, amounts allocated to those components, and the total compensation opportunities for the CEO and the other named executive officers. Compensation Strategies also provided the compensation committee with information on executive compensation trends and best practices and advice for potential improvements to the executive compensation program. Compensation Strategies also advised the Committee on the design of the compensation program for non employee directors. In 2006, Compensation Strategies was paid approximately $28,500 for such services. We did not use Compensation Strategies services in 2007.

Elements of Our Compensation Program for Named Executive Officers
As a result, we have generally established the following elements of compensation for our named executive officers:
Base Salary .
We pay base salaries to our named executive officers which are intended to be at or near the market median for base salaries of similar companies. These amounts are evaluated annually. We believe that such base salaries are necessary to attract and retain executive talent. In evaluating appropriate pay levels and salary increases for our named executive officers, the compensation committee considers achievement of our strategic goals, level of responsibility, individual performance, internal equity and external pay practices. Regarding external pay practices, the compensation committee reviews compensation practices of the peer companies, as determined from information gathered by our compensation consultants.

Annual Incentives .
Annual incentive (bonus) awards are designed to focus management attention on key operational goals for the current fiscal year. Our named executive officers may earn a bonus that is partially dependant upon achievement of their specific operational and financial goals, as well as quality of care targets.

As described in more detail below, the Bonus Target is based on achieving 100% of budget on the net operating income category. Therefore, if the Company achieves over 100% of budget in this category, the bonus percentage could be higher than the Bonus Target disclosed above.

Net Operating Income. For 2007, 70% of the available bonus percentage for each executive was tied to Company profitability. This metric was measured using budgeted operating income/loss, adjusted for the non-cash impact of professional liability expense. In addition, the compensation committee had the discretion to make other adjustments for unusual/unbudgeted items. The portion of the bonus under Net Operating Income was adjusted based on performance as follows:
• 80% or less of budget, executive earned 0% of the target bonus for this category;

• 81% to 100% of budget, executive earned 5% of the target bonus for this category for each 1% of budget achieved over 80%;

• 101% to 125% of budget, 15% of the incremental earned net operating income was placed into a pool to be shared among the participants. Sharing of the pool was discretionary and/or pro rata.

• Above 125% — additional amounts were awarded at the discretion of the Board of Directors.
Discretionary : 30% of the bonus was based on subjective matters of performance at the discretion of the Board, including quality of care measures.
The actual operating income exceeded the budgeted operating income, thus the executives were paid a bonus in excess of the target bonus amount.

MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION FROM LATEST 10K

Overview
Advocat Inc. provides long-term care services to nursing center patients in eight states, primarily in the Southeast and Southwest. Our centers provide a range of health care services to their patients and residents. In addition to the nursing, personal care and social services usually provided in long-term care centers, we offer a variety of comprehensive rehabilitation services as well as nutritional support services.
As of December 31, 2007, our continuing operations consist of 50 nursing centers with 5,773 licensed nursing beds and 66 assisted living units. As of December 31, 2007, our continuing operations included nine owned nursing centers and 41 leased nursing centers.
Acquisitions and New Lease . Effective August 11, 2007, we purchased the leasehold interests and operations of seven skilled nursing facilities from SMSA for a price of approximately $10.0 million. Effective November 1, 2007, we entered into an agreement to lease a facility from a subsidiary of Omega, and we are evaluating the possibility of entering into an agreement with Omega for the construction and lease of a replacement facility.
Divestitures. We have undertaken certain divestitures through sale of assets and lease terminations. The divested operations have generally been poor performing properties. Effective March 31, 2007, we terminated operations at a leased facility in Arkansas. The owner of the facility sold the property and we cooperated in an orderly transition to the new owner. In May 2006, we completed the sale of certain assets of eleven assisted living facilities located in North Carolina for a sales price of $11.0 million. We closed one remaining North Carolina assisted living facility in April 2006, and are continuing our efforts to sell this property. In September 2007, we sold the bed license for the remaining North Carolina assisted living facility for a sales price of $183,000 and recognized a pretax gain on sale of discontinued operations of $45,000. In February 2005, we sold two nursing centers in Texas.
In accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets,” our consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to reflect these divestitures as discontinued operations.
Basis of Financial Statements. Our patient revenues consist of the fees charged for the care of patients in the nursing centers we own and lease. Our operating expenses include the costs, other than lease, depreciation and amortization expenses, incurred in the operation of the nursing centers we owned and leased. Our general and administrative expenses consist of the costs of the corporate office and regional support functions. Our depreciation and interest expenses include all such expenses across the range of our operations.
Selected Financial and Operating Data

Revenues
Patient Revenues
The fees we charge patients in our nursing centers are recorded on an accrual basis. These rates are contractually adjusted with respect to individuals receiving benefits under federal and state-funded programs and other third-party payors. Our net revenues are derived substantially from Medicare, Medicaid and other government programs (approximately 86.9%, 87.0% and 88.0% for 2007, 2006 and 2005, respectively). Medicare intermediaries make retroactive adjustments based on changes in allowed claims. In addition, certain of the states in which we operate require complicated detailed cost reports which are subject to review and adjustments. In the opinion of management, adequate provision has been made for adjustments that may result from such reviews. Retroactive adjustments, if any, are recorded when objectively determinable, generally within three years of the close of a reimbursement year depending upon the timing of appeals and third-party settlement reviews or audits.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We evaluate the collectibility of our accounts receivable by reviewing current agings of accounts receivable, historical collections data and other factors. As a percentage of revenue, our provision for doubtful accounts was approximately 0.4%, 0.8% and 0.8% for 2007, 2006 and 2005, respectively. Historical bad debts have generally resulted from uncollectible private pay balances, some uncollectible coinsurance and deductibles and other factors. Receivables that are deemed to be uncollectible are written off.

Professional Liability and Other Self-Insurance Reserves
Accrual for Professional and General Liability Claims -
Because our actual liability for existing and anticipated professional liability and general liability claims will exceed our limited insurance coverage, we have recorded total liabilities for reported professional liability claims and estimates for incurred but unreported claims of $20.7 million as of December 31, 2007. This accrual includes estimates of liability for incurred but not reported claims, estimates of liability for reported but unresolved claims, actual liabilities related to settlements, including settlements to be paid over time, and estimates of related legal costs incurred and expected to be incurred. All losses are projected on an undiscounted basis.
We retain the Actuarial Division of Willis of Tennessee, Inc. (“Willis”), a third-party actuarial firm, to estimate the appropriate accrual for incurred general and professional liability claims. The actuary, Willis, primarily uses historical data regarding the frequency and cost of our past claims over a multi-year period and information regarding our number of occupied beds to develop its estimates of our ultimate professional liability cost for current periods. The actuary estimates our professional liability accrual for past periods by using currently-known information to adjust the initial reserve that was created for that period.
On a quarterly basis, we obtain reports of claims and lawsuits that we have incurred from insurers and a third party claims administrator. These reports contain information relevant to the liability actually incurred to date with that claim as well as the third-party administrator’s estimate of the anticipated total cost of the claim. This information is reviewed by us and provided to the actuary. The actuary uses this information to determine the timing of claims reporting and the development of reserves, and compares the information obtained to its original estimates of liability. Based on the actual claim information obtained and on estimates regarding the number and cost of additional claims anticipated in the future, the reserve estimate for a particular prior period may be revised upward or downward on a quarterly basis.

Although we retain a third-party actuarial firm to assist us, professional and general liability claims are inherently uncertain, and the liability associated with anticipated claims is very difficult to estimate. As a result, our actual liabilities may vary significantly from the accrual, and the amount of the accrual has and may continue to fluctuate by a material amount in any given quarter.
Professional liability costs are material to our financial position, and differences between estimates and the ultimate amount of loss may cause a material fluctuation in our reported results of operations. Our professional liability expense was negative $1.7 million, negative $5.4 million and negative $4.5 million, for the years ended December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005 respectively, with negative amounts representing net benefits resulting from downward revisions in previous estimates. These amounts are material in relation to our reported net income from continuing operations for the related periods of $9.5 million, $22.4 million and $31.0 million, respectively. We believe that the primary reason that we experienced these net benefits during 2005 through 2007 is that we were able during the period to settle outstanding claims on more favorable terms than we have historically. These settlements impact our professional liability in two ways. They reduce the amount of anticipated liability that was recorded in prior periods, and they may result in a lower estimate of the anticipated liability expense for unreported claims in the current period. However, the fact that these settlements have reduced our professional liability expense does not guarantee that future claims will be resolved on favorable terms and we may incur professional liability expenses in the future significantly in excess of those currently recorded, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and cash flows. The total liability recorded at December 31, 2007, was $20.7 million, compared to current assets of $44.2 million and total assets of $110.1 million. A significant judgment entered against us in one or more of these legal actions could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and cash flows.

Results of Operations
As discussed in the overview at the start of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, we have completed certain divestitures as well as a recent acquisition.

Year Ended December 31, 2007 Compared With Year Ended December 31, 2006
As noted in the overview, during 2007 we completed the SMSA Acquisition and entered into a lease for an additional facility in Texas (together, the “New Texas Facilities”). All results for the New Texas Facilities are included from the effective date of acquisition or inception of lease.
In addition, we have entered into certain divestiture transactions in recent periods, and our consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to present such transactions as discontinued operations. Accordingly, the related revenue, expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows have been reported separately, and the discussion below addresses principally the results of our continuing operations.
Patient Revenues . Patient revenues increased to $245.1 million in 2007 from $214.7 million in 2006, an increase of $30.4 million, or 14.2%. Revenues related to the New Texas Facilities were $19.6 million in 2007. Same center patient revenues increased to $225.5 million in 2007 from $214.7 million in 2006, an increase of $10.8 million, or 5.0%. This increase is primarily due to increased Medicaid rates in certain states and Medicare rate increases.

On a same center basis, the Company’s average rate per day for Medicare Part A patients increased 8.4% in 2007 compared to 2006 as a result of annual inflation adjustments and the acuity levels of Medicare patients in our nursing centers, which were higher in 2007 than in 2006. Our average rate per day for Medicaid patients increased 4.7% in 2007 compared to 2006 as a result of increasing patient acuity levels, certain state increases to offset minimum wage adjustments, effects of stock based compensation charges and other rate increases in certain states.
Operating expense . Operating expense increased to $187.5 million in 2007 from $163.4 million in 2006, an increase of $24.1 million, or 14.7%. Operating expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $17.1 million in 2007. Same center operating expense increased to $170.4 million in 2007 from $163.4 million in 2006, an increase of $7.0 million, or 4.3%. This increase is primarily attributable to cost increases related to wages and benefits, partially offset by reductions in bad debt expenses and costs of workers’ compensation insurance. On a same center basis, operating expense decreased to 75.6% of revenue in 2007, compared to 76.1% of revenue in 2006.
The largest component of operating expenses is wages, which increased to $111.7 million in 2007 from $97.5 million in 2006, an increase of $14.2 million, or 14.6%. Wages related to the New Texas Facilities were approximately $9.7 million. Same center wages increased approximately $4.5 million, or 4.6%, primarily due to increases in wages as a result of competitive labor markets in most of the areas in which we operate, regular merit and inflationary raises for personnel (increase of approximately 3.8% for the period), and labor costs associated with increases in patient acuity levels. Although overall Medicare census declined slightly, the acuity levels of the Company’s patients, as indicated by RUG level scores, were higher than in 2006, resulting in greater costs to care for these patients.
Employee health insurance costs were approximately $0.6 million higher in 2007 compared to 2006 on a same center basis, an increase of approximately 14.3%. The Company is self insured for the first $150,000 in claims per employee each year. Employee health insurance costs can vary significantly from year to year.

These increased costs were partially offset by reductions in bad debt expense and workers’ compensation insurance. Bad debt expense was $0.6 million lower in 2007 compared to 2006 on a same center basis. Costs of workers’ compensation insurance were approximately $0.7 million lower in 2007 compared to 2006 on a same center basis due to better than expected claims experience.
The remaining increases in operating expense are primarily due to the effects of increases in patient acuity levels.
Lease expense . Lease expense increased to $20.0 million in 2007 from $16.1 million in 2006. Lease expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $1.5 million for 2007. Same center lease expense increased to $18.5 million in 2007 from $16.1 million in 2006. Effective October 1, 2006, we renewed a master lease covering 28 nursing centers. This resulted in an increase in lease expense of $2.0 million during 2007 for the effects of recording scheduled rent increases on a straight-line basis over the term of the renewal period. This increase has no effect on cash rent payments at the start of the lease term, and will only result in additional cash outlay as the 3 percent annual increases take effect each year. In addition, there was an increase in lease expense of $0.5 million resulting from rent increases for lessor funded property renovations.
Professional liability. Professional liability in 2007 was a benefit of $1.7 million, compared to a benefit of $5.4 million in 2006, a decrease in benefit of $3.7 million. Professional liability expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $0.2 million. Our cash expenditures for professional liability costs were $2.8 million and $3.4 million for 2007 and 2006, respectively. These cash expenditures can fluctuate from year to year, and we expect that cash expenditures will be higher in 2008. During 2007, our total recorded liabilities for self-insured professional liability declined to $20.7 million at December 31, 2007, down from $25.7 million at December 31, 2006.
General and administrative expense . General and administrative expense decreased to $17.6 million in 2007 from $21.0 million in 2006, a decrease of $3.4 million or 16.5%. General and administrative expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $0.7 million in 2007 and included $0.3 million incurred for post acquisition integration costs. Same center general and administrative expense decreased to $16.9 million in 2007 from $21.0 million in 2006, a decrease of $4.1 million, or 19.8%.
The majority of the decrease in general and administrative expense is related to non-cash stock-based compensation, which was $4.4 million lower in 2007. Prior to 2007, such charges were reported as a separate income statement caption, but were reclassified for current and prior periods in the 2007 financial statements. Costs of compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 were $0.7 million lower in 2007 compared to 2006.
Partially offsetting these reduced costs were increased compensation costs of approximately $0.9 million, resulting from normal merit and inflationary increases ($0.3 million, approximately 4.3%), new positions added to improve marketing, operational and financial controls ($0.3 million), and higher incentive compensation costs ($0.3 million) as a result of operating performance.
Depreciation and amortization . Depreciation and amortization expense was approximately $4.1 million in 2007 and $3.6 million in 2006. The increase in 2007 is primarily due to depreciation and amortization expenses related to the New Texas Facilities.
Foreign currency transaction gain . A foreign currency transaction gain of $808,000 was recorded in 2007, compared to $21,000 in 2006. These gains result primarily from foreign currency translation of a note receivable from the sale of our Canadian operations in 2004.
Interest expense . Interest expense decreased to $3.5 million in 2007 from $3.7 million in 2006, a decrease of $0.2 million or 4.3%. Interest expense decreased as a result of payments of debt from proceeds of the sale of discontinued operations, principal payments made in connection with a refinancing transaction in August 2006, and other principal payments. These decreases were partially offset by debt increases associated with our SMSA Acquisition, which resulted in interest expense increases of approximately $0.3 million in 2007, and fees for letters of credit issued in 2007.
Debt retirement costs. Debt retirement costs of $0.1 and $0.2 million in 2007 and 2006, respectively, are related to unamortized deferred finance costs of refinanced loans that were written off following the refinancing transactions we completed in August 2007 and August 2006.
Income from continuing operations before income taxes; income from continuing operations per common share . As a result of the above, continuing operations reported income before income taxes of $15.8 million in 2007 compared to $12.9 million in 2006. The provision for income taxes was $6.3 million in 2007, compared to a benefit for income taxes of $9.5 million in 2006. Our effective tax rate differs materially from the statutory rate in 2006 mainly due to changes in our valuation allowance for net deferred tax assets. During 2006, we recorded a deferred tax benefit to reduce deferred tax asset valuation allowances, based on improvements in our financial position and our updated forecast of income available to support the turnaround of existing net operating loss carryforward credits. In future periods, we will continue to assess the need for and adequacy of the remaining valuation allowance. The basic and diluted income per common share from continuing operations were $1.56 and $1.49, respectively, in 2007, as compared to a basic and diluted income per common share from continuing operations of $3.81 and $3.42, respectively, in 2006.
Income from discontinued operations . As discussed in the overview at the start of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, we have completed certain divestitures and have reclassified our consolidated financial statements to present these divestitures as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Operating loss of discontinued operations, net of taxes, was approximately $91,000 in 2007, compared to a loss of $337,000 in 2006. The disposition of discontinued operations and completions of lease terminations resulted in a loss of $8,000, net of taxes, in 2007, compared to a loss of $114,000 in 2006.

MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION FOR LATEST QUARTER

Three Months Ended March 31, 2008 Compared With Three Months Ended March 31, 2007
As noted in the overview, during 2007 we completed the SMSA Acquisition and entered into a lease for an additional facility in Texas (together, the “New Texas Facilities”). All results for the New Texas Facilities are included from the effective date of acquisition or inception of lease.
In addition, we have entered into certain divestiture transactions in recent periods, and our consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to present such transactions as discontinued operations. Accordingly, the related revenue, expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows have been reported separately, and the discussion below addresses principally the results of our continuing operations.
Patient Revenues . Patient revenues increased to $71.5 million in 2008 from $54.6 million in 2007, an increase of $16.9 million, or 30.9%. Revenues related to the New Texas Facilities were $12.9 million in 2008. Same center patient revenues increased to $58.5 million in 2008 from $54.6 million in 2007, an increase of $3.9 million, or 7.2%. This increase is primarily due to Medicare rate increases, increased Medicaid rates in certain states and increased private pay and managed care rates and census, partially offset by the effects of lower Medicare census.

On a same center basis, the Company’s average rate per day for Medicare Part A patients increased 11.9% in 2008 compared to 2007 as a result of annual inflation adjustments and the acuity levels of Medicare patients in our nursing centers, as indicated by RUG level scores, which were higher in 2008 than in 2007. Our average rate per day for Medicaid patients increased 4.8% in 2008 compared to 2007 as a result of increasing patient acuity levels, certain state increases to offset minimum wage adjustments and other rate increases in certain states.
Operating expense . Operating expense increased to $55.5 million in 2008 from $41.7 million in 2007, an increase of $13.8 million, or 33.0%. Operating expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $11.3 million in 2008. Same center operating expense increased to $44.2 million in 2008 from $41.7 million in 2007, an increase of $2.5 million, or 5.9%. This increase is primarily attributable to cost increases related to wages and benefits and an increase in bad debt expense. On a same center basis, operating expense decreased to 75.5% of revenue in 2008, compared to 76.5% of revenue in 2007. The decrease in same center operating expense as a percentage of revenue was due to the effects of increases in Medicare and Medicaid rates.
The largest component of operating expenses is wages, which increased to $32.9 million in 2008 from $24.8 million in 2007, an increase of $8.1 million, or 33.0%. Wages related to the New Texas Facilities were approximately $6.8 million. Same center wages increased approximately $1.4 million, or 5.5%, primarily due to increases in wages as a result of competitive labor markets in most of the areas in which we operate, regular merit and inflationary raises for personnel (increase of approximately 3.7% for the period), and labor costs associated with increases in patient acuity levels. Although overall Medicare census declined, the acuity levels of the Company’s patients, as indicated by RUG level scores, were higher than in 2007, resulting in greater costs to care for these patients.
In addition to increased wages, bad debt expense and employee health insurance costs were higher. Bad debt expense was $0.3 million higher in 2008 compared to 2007 on a same center basis. During 2007, bad debt expense was lower due to better than expected collections experience. Employee health insurance costs were approximately $0.3 million higher in 2008 compared to 2007 on a same center basis. The Company is self insured for the first $150,000 in claims per employee each year. Employee health insurance costs can vary significantly from year to year.
Lease expense . Lease expense increased to $5.7 million in 2008 from $4.6 million in 2007. Lease expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $1.0 million for 2008. Same center lease expense increased to $4.7 million in 2008 from $4.6 million in 2007. There was an increase in lease expense of $0.1 million resulting from rent increases for lessor funded property renovations.
Professional liability. Professional liability in 2008 was a benefit of $1.0 million, compared to an expense of $0.4 million in 2007, a decrease in expense of $1.4 million. Professional liability expense related to the New Texas Facilities was a benefit of $0.1 million. Our cash expenditures for professional liability costs were $0.2 million and $0.7 million for 2008 and 2007, respectively. These cash expenditures can fluctuate from year to year. During 2008, our total recorded liabilities for self-insured professional liability declined to $19.3 million at March 31, 2008, down from $20.7 million at December 31, 2007.
General and administrative expense . General and administrative expense increased to $4.6 million in 2008 from $4.1 million in 2007, an increase of $0.5 million or 10.0%. As a percentage of revenue, general and administrative expense decreased to 6.4% in 2008 from 7.6% in 2007. General and administrative expense related to the New Texas Facilities was $0.2 million in 2008. Same center general and administrative expense increased to $4.3 million in 2008 from $4.1 million in 2007, an increase of $0.2 million, or 4.3%. Compensation costs increased by approximately $0.2 million, including normal merit and inflationary increases and new positions added to improve marketing, operating and financial controls. Non-cash stock based compensation expense was approximately $0.1 million higher in 2008. These increases were offset by a decrease in incentive compensation expense of $0.3 million. The remaining increase is due to higher travel costs and professional fees.
Depreciation and amortization . Depreciation and amortization expense was approximately $1.2 million in 2008 and $0.9 million in 2007. The increase in 2008 is primarily due to depreciation and amortization expenses related to the New Texas Facilities.
Foreign currency transaction gain (loss) . A foreign currency transaction loss of $229,000 was recorded in 2008, compared to a gain of $47,000 in 2007. Such gains and losses result primarily from foreign currency translation of a note receivable from the sale of our Canadian operations in 2004.
Interest expense . Interest expense remained constant at $0.8 million in 2008 and 2007. The effects of additional borrowings to complete the SMSA Acquisition were offset by principal payments made during 2007 and 2008, the effects of lower interest rates following our refinancing transaction in 2007, and reductions in interest resulting from a decrease in variable interest rates during the periods.
Income from continuing operations before income taxes; income from continuing operations per common share . As a result of the above, continuing operations reported income before income taxes of $4.6 million in 2008 compared to $2.3 million in 2007. The provision for income taxes was $1.5 million in 2008, an effective rate of 32.1%, compared to $0.9 million in 2007, an effective rate of 38.9%. In periods prior to 2001, we generated tax credits under the Work Opportunity Tax Credit program totaling approximately $0.3 million. As we were incurring taxable losses in those years we did not record tax assets related to these credits. During the three months ending March 31, 2008 we recorded these carryforward credits as deferred tax assets as we anticipate using them to reduce our taxes payable in 2008. The impact of recording these assets reduced the effective tax rate for the three months ending March 31, 2008. The basic and diluted income per common share from continuing operations were $0.52 and $0.50, respectively, in 2008, as compared to a basic and diluted income per common share from continuing operations of $0.22 and $0.21, respectively, in 2007.
Income from discontinued operations . As discussed in the overview at the start of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, we have completed certain divestitures and have reclassified our consolidated financial statements to present these divestitures as discontinued operations for all periods presented. Operating loss of discontinued operations, net of taxes, was approximately $12,000 in 2008, compared to a gain of $16,000 in 2007. The disposition of discontinued operations and completions of lease terminations resulted in no gain or loss in 2008 and a loss of $35,000, net of taxes, in 2007.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Capital Resources
As of March 31, 2008, we had $34.0 million of outstanding borrowings, including $2.1 million in payments scheduled to be made in the next twelve months. Based on our 2008 year to date results, we will be required to make a mandatory prepayment based on excess cash flows of approximately $0.3 million in March 2009.
In August 2007, we entered into an agreement with a bank for a $16.5 million term loan to finance the SMSA acquisition and repay certain existing indebtedness. The term loan has an interest rate of LIBOR plus 2.5%, a maturity of five years, and principal payments based on a ten year amortization, with additional payments based on cash flow from operations and amounts realized related to certain collateral. The term loan is secured by receivables and all other unencumbered assets of the company, including land held for sale, insurance refunds receivable and notes receivable. This term loan has an outstanding balance of $11.9 million as of March 31, 2008.
The bank loan agreement also includes a $15 million revolving credit facility that provides for revolving credit loans as well as the issuance of letters of credit. The revolver is secured by accounts receivable and provided for a maximum draw of up to $15 million. There are limits on the maximum amount of loans that may be outstanding under the revolver based on borrowing base restrictions. The revolver has a term of three years and bears interest at our option of LIBOR plus 2.25% or the bank’s prime lending rate. Annual fees for letters of credit issued under this revolver are 2.25% of the amount outstanding. We have issued a letter of credit of approximately $8.1 million to serve as a security deposit for our leases with Omega. Considering the balance of eligible accounts receivable at March 31, 2008, the letter of credit and the current maximum loan of $15 million, the balance available for future revolving credit loans would be $6.9 million. Such amounts are available to fund the working capital needs of this transaction and future expansion opportunities. As of March 31, 2008, we had no borrowings outstanding under our revolving credit facility.
Our debt agreements contain various financial covenants the most restrictive of which relate to cash flow, debt service coverage ratios, liquidity and limits on the payment of dividends to shareholders. We are in compliance with such covenants at March 31, 2008.

New Facility Construction
In November 2007, we entered into a short-term, single facility lease with Omega for an existing 102 bed skilled nursing center in Paris, Texas, and undertook an evaluation of the feasibility of entering into an agreement with Omega for the construction of a replacement facility. On March 14, 2008, we entered into an amendment to our Master Lease with Omega to provide for the construction and lease of the new facility. Upon the completion of the construction of the replacement facility, the existing building will be closed and the single facility lease terminated.
Under the terms of the lease amendment, Omega will provide funding and we will supervise the construction of the facility. Construction is expected to begin during the second quarter of 2008, with completion expected in mid-2009. Rent will commence upon completion of the project, but no later than August 2009. Once construction is completed, annual rent will be equal to 10.25% of the total cost of the replacement facility, including direct costs of construction, carrying costs during the construction period, furnishings and equipment, land cost and the value of the related skilled nursing facility license. The total cost of the replacement facility is expected to be approximately $6.8 million. We will bear all costs, if any, in excess of $7 million. The lease amendment provides for renewal options with respect to the new facility through 2035.
The replacement facility will be subject to the requirements of our current master lease, with certain exceptions for capital spending requirements. At the fifth anniversary of the completion of the construction of the replacement facility, we may terminate the lease at our sole option. If we elect to continue the lease, annual rentals for this facility will be increased by an amount equal to one half of the amount of the cash flow of the facility, as defined, in excess of 1.2 times the then existing rent, effective as of the start of the sixth year after the completion of the building.
Share Repurchase
In November 2007, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $2.5 million of our common stock pursuant to a plan under Rule 10b5-1 and in compliance with Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. As of November 1, 2007, there were approximately 5.9 million shares of common stock outstanding.
Share repurchases under this program are authorized through the earlier of one year from November 6, 2007 or the repurchase of the full amount authorized to be repurchased under the plan, subject to conditions specified in the plan. Repurchases may be made through open market or privately negotiated transactions in accordance with all applicable securities laws, rules, and regulations and are funded from available working capital. The share repurchase program may be terminated at any time without prior notice. During the three months ending March 31, 2008, we spent $1.1 million to repurchase 103,600 shares of our common stock, and during April, we completed purchases under our plan. Since the inception of the plan in November 2007 we have purchased a total of 231,800 shares for $2.5 million. See “Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds.”
Professional Liability
We have numerous pending liability claims, disputes and legal actions for professional liability and other related issues. For several years, due to our past claim experience and increasing cost of claims throughout the long-term care industry, the premiums paid by us for professional liability and other liability insurance exceeded the coverage purchased so that it cost more than $1 to purchase $1 of insurance coverage. For this reason, effective March 9, 2001, we purchased professional liability insurance coverage for our facilities that, based on historical claims experience, was substantially less than the amount required to satisfy claims that were incurred. As a result, we have been effectively self-insured. We have essentially exhausted all general and professional liability insurance available for claims first asserted prior to March 10, 2007. For claims made during the period from March 10, 2007 through March 9, 2009, we maintain insurance coverage limits of $100,000 per medical incident and total annual aggregate policy coverage limits of $500,000.
As of March 31, 2008, we have recorded total liabilities for reported and settled professional liability claims and estimates for incurred but unreported claims of $19.3 million. A significant judgment entered against us in one or more of these legal actions could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and cash flows. In April 2008, we entered into individual agreements to settle eight professional liability cases for a total of $5.0 million, including $200,000 paid from insurance proceeds. These settlements will be paid in installments from April 2008 through January 2009. The settlement amounts for these claims were fully accrued as of March 31, 2008. The defense of and settlements related to other pending claims will require additional cash expenditures.
Liquidity
Net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations totaled $2.5 million and $3.0 million in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Discontinued operations used cash of $12,000 in 2008 and provided cash of $40,000 in 2007.
Investing activities of continuing operations used cash of $2.2 million and $1.2 million in 2008 and 2007, respectively. These amounts primarily represent cash used for purchases of property, plant and equipment. We have used between $3.4 million and $6.8 million for capital expenditures of continuing operations in each of the three calendar years ended December 31, 2007. The capital expenditures we made during 2007 were driven by three projects or initiatives that totaled $3.6 million of the $6.8 million spent in total. We spent $0.6 million and $0.8 million at owned facilities in Arkansas and Texas, respectively, as well as $2.2 million at our New Texas facilities. Such expenditures were primarily for facility improvements and equipment, which were financed principally through working capital. For the year ending December 31, 2008, we anticipate that capital expenditures for improvements and equipment for our existing facility operations will be higher as we complete facility renovations and significant projects at certain owned and leased facilities. We expect to use approximately $4.0 million of working capital for facility renovation projects in 2008. Discontinued operations used cash of $49,000 in 2008 and there were no cash flows from investing activities of discontinued operations in 2007.
Financing activities of continuing operations used cash of $1.6 million and $1.8 million in 2008 and 2007, respectively. The cash used resulted from the repayment of debt obligations in both years as well as the repurchase of $1.1 million of our common stock in 2008. There were no cash flows from financing activities of discontinued operations in 2008 or 2007. No interest costs or debt were allocated to discontinued operations.

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