The Daily Magic Formula Stock for 09/01/2008 is Raytheon Co. According to the Magic Formula Investing Web Site, the ebit yield is 10% and the EBIT ROIC is 75-100 %.
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Raytheon Company, together with its subsidiaries, is an industry leader in defense and government electronics, space, information technology and technical services. We design, develop, manufacture, integrate, support and provide a wide range of technologically advanced products, services and solutions for principally governmental customers in the United States and abroad. We act as a prime contractor or major subcontractor on numerous defense and related programs for the U.S. government, which accounted for 86% of our sales in 2007.
We were founded in 1922 and are incorporated in the state of Delaware. We are the surviving company of the 1997 merger of HE Holdings, Inc. and Raytheon Company. Our principal executive offices are located at 870 Winter Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451.
In this section, we describe our business, including our product lines, customers, operations and other considerations. We also discuss some of our notable initiatives and achievements in 2007, such as certain key contract awards, new product introductions, acquisitions and divestitures.
We currently operate in six business segments:
Integrated Defense Systems;
Intelligence and Information Systems;
Network Centric Systems;
Space and Airborne Systems; and
Revenue and other financial information regarding our business segments is set forth on pages 39-46 of this Form 10-K.
In 2007, we successfully completed the sale of Raytheon Aircraft Company (Raytheon Aircraft) and Flight Options LLC (Flight Options), two former operating commercial aviation businesses. With these changes to our portfolio of businesses, we have significantly advanced our strategic vision and sharpened our focus on our core defense markets.
Raytheon Aircraft and Flight Options are presented as discontinued operations in this Form 10-K. We reorganized the remaining businesses that we formerly disclosed in the Other category to realign our capabilities and technologies. The Raytheon Professional Services business was transferred to Technical Services. With the sale of Raytheon Aircraft and Flight Options, we have largely exited the commercial aircraft market and all remaining assets and liabilities associated with the residual commuter aircraft portfolio of Raytheon Airline Aviation Services LLC (RAAS), which currently generates only incidental revenue, were transferred to Corporate.
Integrated Defense Systems (IDS) â€”IDS, headquartered in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, is a leading provider of integrated joint battlespace (space, air, surface and subsurface) and homeland security solutions. IDS leverages its core domain knowledge and key capabilities in sensors, command and control, and effects to deliver mission assured solutions for air and missile defense, naval and homeland security applications, enabling situational awareness and joint integrated fires.
In 2007, IDS continued to serve as the prime mission systems equipment integrator for all electronic and combat systems of the Zumwalt Class Destroyer program (DDG 1000), providing key deliverables and successfully completing a number of major reviews and assessments. The Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) and Upgraded Early Warning Radar (UEWR) radars built by IDS were key components in successful flight tests conducted by the U.S. Missile Defense Agency. The Patriot Air & Missile Defense System continued as a major contributor to IDS, with Patriot upgrades for the U.S. Army in production and major Patriot sales to international customers. IDS also continued to make innovative changes to its products and technologies for applications in additional markets, such as homeland security. For example, IDS has coupled innovations provided by small business partners with its own prime program management, process maturity, and manufacturing expertise to assist the Department of Homeland Security in bringing added security to our borders.
IDSâ€™ key customers include the U.S. Navy, Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, the U.S. Missile Defense Agency and Department of Homeland Security. Key international customers include Japan, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Taiwan, Australia, Germany and the United Kingdom.
IDS has the following principal product lines:
Seapower Capability Systems (SCS)â€”SCS is leading the U.S. Navyâ€™s Open Architecture initiative, serving as prime contractor and developer of the Navyâ€™s newest and most capable combat system for the Zumwalt class destroyer under the DDG 1000 program. SCS is designing and producing DDG 1000 mission systems equipment, which includes radar, sonar, computing environment, software, hardware and associated electronics systems. SCS expects to leverage the joint system integration capabilities and technologies developed for DDG 1000 to forward-fit future naval surface combatants and backfit the U.S. Navyâ€™s family of ships. SCS also provides a broad array of sensors and effectors for anti-submarine and mine warfare mission areas, advanced combat systems for submarines and amphibious ships, high performance fire control systems for surface combatants and ship integration technologies for domestic and international naval and maritime customers. SCS is the integrator for the BYG-1 combat system, a system of tactical control, weapons control and tactical network subsystems, to all U.S. submarines as well as to Australiaâ€™s Collins class submarines. SCS also serves as the U.S. Navyâ€™s sole industrial partner on both heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes, providing manufacturing, design engineering and support services expertise.
National and Theater Security Programs (NTSP)â€”NTSP provides integrated whole-life air and missile defense systems which enable warfighters to sense, detect and engage threats through air and ground-based sensors and command and control systems as well as joint system solutions and intelligence support for ballistic missile defense. NTSP produces systems and solutions such as Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor (JLENS), a theater-based, advanced sensor system that provides long-endurance, over-the-horizon detection and tracking capabilities required to defeat the threat of cruise missiles; Early Warning Radars, including the X-band Family-of-Radars, which enable threat detection, precision tracking, discrimination and classification of ballistic missile threats; and Surface Launched Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile (SL-AMRAAM), a state-of-the-art air defense system designed to defeat current and emerging cruise missiles and a wide range of air breathing threats.
Patriot Programs (PP)â€”PP designs, develops and produces the Patriot Air & Missile Defense System, a long-range, high-altitude system designed to defeat advanced threats, including aircraft, tactical ballistic missiles and cruise missiles. The Patriot system serves as the foundation of the U.S. Armyâ€™s integrated air and missile defense against the escalating tactical ballistic missile threat. PP also provides the Patriot system to key international customers, including the Netherlands, Germany, Japan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Taiwan and Greece.
Global Business Operations (GBO)â€”GBO includes a number of related IDS subsidiaries and programs, including Raytheon Sarcos, Raytheon Solipsys, Raytheon AnschĂĽtz and IDS United Kingdom Operations. These entities provide a wide spectrum of capabilities, including integrated Command and Control (C2) solutions for the domestic and international defense and homeland security markets, naval system capabilities for military and commercial markets worldwide, and netted sensor solutions which efficiently provide a single integrated picture from data provided by many sensors. GBO also provides combat system design, development and procurement for major international programs such as the Hobart class Air Warfare Destroyer (AWD) program in Australia. GBO leverages tools, processes and subject matter expertise developed on major U.S. programs to provide such capabilities to IDS international locations.
Civil Security and Response Programs (CSRP)â€”CSRP provides integrated capabilities in surveillance and multi-domain awareness, knowledge management, information fusion and interoperability through a broad range of
existing products to detect, identify, track and disseminate actionable intelligence. CSRP produces the Relocatable Over The Horizon Radar (ROTHR) system, a long range, land-based, wide area surveillance system; the ATHENA Data Fusion system, an information infrastructure that enables the integration of a wide range of information from a variety of sensors and other sources; and Advanced Spectroscopic Portals, which provide the Department of Homeland Security with critically needed nuclear detection capability.
Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS) â€”IIS, headquartered in Garland, Texas, is a leading provider of intelligence and information systems to government and commercial customers in the U.S. Department of Defense/civil space, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), Federal Information technology, and homeland security markets. IIS leverages broad capabilities and expertise in signal and image processing, geospatial intelligence, air- and space-borne command and control, ground engineering support, weather and environmental management, information technology, information assurance and homeland security.
In 2007, IIS continued to grow its business with classified customers while expanding into international markets and other new opportunities. IIS was awarded e-Borders, a contract to develop and implement an advanced border control and security program for the U.K. Home Office. IIS is also working with the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Command to develop a new system design for the next generation Global Positioning System Control Segment (GPS-OCX). In addition, IIS completed its acquisition of Oakley Networks, Inc., a technology leading developer of cyber-security solutions for government and commercial customers, to strengthen its capabilities in information security.
IISâ€™ key customers include the U.S. Intelligence Community, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), the U.K. Home Office and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
IIS has the following principal product lines:
Strategic Intelligence Systems (SIS)â€”SIS provides system engineering, development, integration and life cycle support of complex, large-scale, commercial-off-the-shelf- based systems for commercial and proprietary imaging customers. SIS serves primarily classified customers and the U.K. Home Office with the e-Borders contract to develop an advanced border control and security program.
National Systems (NS)â€”NS provides systems and operational support for signals intelligence (SIGINT) and multi-intelligence (multi-INT) missions. Areas of concentration include mission/resource management, real-time mission execution, signal processing and analysis, information management and knowledge discovery, and operations, maintenance and engineering (OM&E) support. NS works on large mission systems integration projects for a variety of proprietary customers.
Operational Technologies and Solutions (OTS)â€”OTS provides information management systems, broadband broadcast systems and operations support through its diverse capabilities. These capabilities include managing state-of-the-art collection systems and products for human intelligence (HUMINT), managing large volumes of information securely and reliably, and providing operations support to intelligence community customers. OTS primarily serves clients in the intelligence community.
Raytheon Information Solutions (RIS)â€”RIS provides information technology solutions in high performance and technical computing, enterprise systems, e-Commerce, logistics management, and scientific and engineering services. RIS is continuing to work on the U.S. VISIT program, an integrated, automated system to track the entry and exit of visitors into and out of the U.S., and the FBI National Data Exchange program. RIS is also providing systems development and integration work at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Space Systems (SS)â€”SS provides satellite command and control software and mission and resource management, end-to-end information and network management, and modeling and simulation capabilities to its customers. SS provides services in support of the monitoring, collection and dissemination of global environmental conditions data
related to weather, atmosphere, oceans, land and near-space environment for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) program. SS programs include the development of a new system design for the next generation Global Positioning System Control Segment (GPS-OCX), a program with the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Command.
Tactical Intelligence Systems (TIS)â€”TIS provides products and services relating to manned and unmanned SIGINT sensors, ground control of airborne SIGINT sensors, multi-INT ground systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground stations and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) battle space management. TIS programs include the Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS), a network centric backbone for the U.S. armed forces; the Global Hawk Ground Segment, which enables the Global Hawk to provide continuous, all-weather surveillance capability to the Joint Forces; and the Consolidated Field Services program in support of the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft.
In 2008, IIS established Information Security Solutions (ISS), a new product line of cyber operations and information security solutions. ISS intends to leverage and expand the Companyâ€™s information assurance capabilities as well as the capabilities of Raytheon Oakley Systems.
Missile Systems (MS) â€”MS, headquartered in Tucson, Arizona, is a premier developer and producer of missile systems for the armed forces of the U.S. and other allied nations. Leveraging its key capabilities in advanced airframes, guidance and navigation systems, high-resolution sensors, targeting and netted systems, MS has developed and supports a broad range of cutting edge weapon systems that includes missiles, smart munitions, projectiles, kinetic kill vehicles, space vehicles and directed energy effectors.
In 2007, MS continued to demonstrate its missile defense capability with several significant test successes including three successful launches of the sea-based system with Standard Missile-3 and one successful launch of the ground-based system that incorporates the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle. Subsequently, in 2008 the Missile Defense Agency and the U.S. Navy completed a successful mission, intercepting a non-functioning satellite with a specially modified Standard Missile-3. In 2007, MS also worked with the U.S. Air Force to demonstrate the first powered flight of the Miniature Air Launched Decoy, a small, low-cost cruise missile that serves as a decoy to confuse enemy sensors. In addition, the MS-developed Excalibur precision-guided 155 millimeter artillery round passed its final testing hurdle for fielding and has been successfully deployed in Iraq in combat operations. The Excalibur is the worldâ€™s first autonomous precision-guided artillery projectile, providing unprecedented fire support accuracy from weapon systems organic to the current Brigade Combat Team force structure.
MSâ€™ major customers include the U.S. Navy, Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Missile Defense Agency and the armed forces of more than 40 allied nations.
MS has the following principal product lines:
Naval Weapon Systems (NWS)â€”NWS provides layered defense capability and naval surface fire support for the navies of more than 30 countries. It leverages its capabilities to provide forward operating base defense for the U.S. Army and Air Force. NWS develops, manufactures and supports the Standard Missile family of weapons with capabilities ranging from anti-air warfare to ballistic missile defense. NWS also produces the Phalanx Close-in Weapon System, the Rolling Airframe Missile and the Evolved SeaSparrow/Sparrow family of missiles for ship self-defense against air and surface threats. It is also developing the Extended Range Guided Munition, which will provide the U.S. Marine Corps with an extended range, precision accuracy fire support weapon using an evolution of existing shipboard gun systems. NWS continues to evolve its products and technologies to encompass the full spectrum of threats, including the protection of land bases to counter terrorist threats.
Strikeâ€”Strike provides products and services designed to enable U.S. Air Force and Navy customers to attack, suppress and destroy ground-based targets, including the Joint Standoff Weapon, High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM), Maverick precision strike missile, Pavewayâ„˘ family of laser-guided â€śsmartâ€ť bombs and Tomahawk Cruise Missile, an advanced surface- or sub-launched cruise missile with loitering and network communication capability. Strike is also completing the development of the Miniature Air Launched Decoy.
Air-to-Airâ€”Air-to-Air provides air dominance capability for U.S. forces and international partners through its family of air-to-air missiles and airborne sensors. Air-to-Air works on AIM-9X, a joint U.S. Navy and Air Force program for the development and fielding of the latest member of the Sidewinder short-range missile family. It also produces the HARM Targeting System and the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), a state-of-the-art, highly dependable and battle proven air-to-air missile that also has a surface-to-air launch application.
Land Combatâ€”Land Combat provides missiles to the U.S. Army and Marine Corps and more than 40 U.S. allies and focuses on accelerating the deployment of precision munitions capability to land combat forces and expanding its mission support capabilities. Land Combat provides the Stinger weapon system for air defense, the Tube-launched Optically-guided Wire-controlled (TOW) family with an upgraded version entering production of anti-armor and anti-fortification weapons, the Javelin fire-and-forget anti-tank weapon and Excalibur, a new GPS-guided projectile designed to provide organic indirect precision fires for ground forces. It is also developing the Non-Line of Sight Launch System Precision Attack Missile, a networked weapon system for precise fires against moving and stationary targets.
Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV)â€”EKV focuses on producing the exoatmospheric kill vehicle, which is the intercept component of the Ground Based Interceptor for the Ground-based Midcourse Defense system designed to protect the U.S. against limited ballistic missile attacks and is part of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The EKV consists of a multi-spectral sensor in a flight package, used to detect, discriminate and destroy incoming warheads carrying weapons of mass destruction.
Other MS product lines include Kinetic Energy Interceptors (KEI), Advanced Missile Defense/Directed Energy Weapons (AMD/DEW) and Advanced Programs. KEI focuses on designing and developing kinetic energy-based missiles that can intercept and destroy enemy ballistic missiles during their boost/ascent and mid-course phases of flight. AMD/DEW pursues opportunities in the missile defense and directed energy markets, including the development of new missile defense solutions, NASA/space applications, modeling/simulation and discrimination capabilities, high power microwave and high energy laser systems. Advanced Programs focuses on the development and early introduction of next generation end-to-end system solutions, architectures and mission capabilities for the warfighter.
Network Centric Systems (NCS) â€”NCS, headquartered in McKinney, Texas, develops and produces mission solutions for networking, command and control, battle space awareness and transportation management. Major programs include command and control systems, integrated communications systems, netted sensor systems and homeland security, as well as civil applications and components to create these systems.
In 2007, NCS continued developing and expanding its international business and presence overseas. NCS had key initiatives into adjacent markets including international and domestic border security, civil communications and first responder interoperability as well as transportation solutions, including open road tolling. In addition, NCS was awarded the U.S. Navyâ€™s Multiband Terminal (NMT) contract to develop and produce an advanced satellite communication system for seamless assured connectivity between a shipâ€™s or submarineâ€™s computer network and the Global Information Grid.
NCSâ€™ major customers include the U.S. Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), as well as numerous international customers.
NCS has the following principal product lines:
Combat Systems (CS)â€”CS provides integrated ground-based surveillance and target engagement solutions designed to provide a significant advantage to the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps warfighters. CS is developing ground sensor capabilities for the U.S. Armyâ€™s Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, including the new Active Protection System, a key element in the full-spectrum suite of â€śhit avoidanceâ€ť technologies. In addition, CS provides the Long Range Advanced Scout Surveillance System (LRAS3), a long-range multi-sensor system which provides the
ability to detect, identify and geo-locate distant targets; the Integrated Target Acquisition System (ITAS) which increases target detection, acquisition, recognition and engagement ranges; and HTI 2nd Generation FLIR (Horizontal Technology Integration Forward Looking Infrared) systems which provide the host vehicle the capability to detect, recognize, acquire, and engage targets at extended ranges.
Integrated Communications Systems (ICS)â€”ICS offers wireless, high-bandwidth and transformational communications solutions for its customers, which include the U.S. Army and Navy. These solutions enable connectivity for Net-centric Operations (NCO) and the Global Information Grid (GIG) and provide mission assurance to customers with satellite, point-to-point and networked communications services that are effective on land, sea and air. Solutions include the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS), an integrated networking system that provides robust, high-speed battlefield communications for warfighters; the Secure Mobile Anti-Jam Reliable Tactical Terminal (SMART-T), a low-cost, extremely high frequency (EHF) satellite terminal that provides robust, low probability of detection, jam-resistant, multi-channel communications in support of the field commander; and the U.S. Navy Multi-band Terminal (NMT), a single terminal for the U.S. Navyâ€™s next generation satellite communications.
Command and Control Systems (C2S)â€”C2S develops and provides integrated solutions, systems and supporting services to deliver network-centric warfare capabilities to the U.S. Army and Navy and other customers. C2Sâ€™ agile and responsive integrated command and control systems provide functionality for such solutions as the Persistent Surveillance and Dissemination System of Systems (PSDS2), the Ground Sensor Integrator (GSI) for the U.S. Armyâ€™s FCS and the DDG-1000 program.
Air Space Management and Homeland Security (AMHS)â€”AMHS provides integrated communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management system solutions for both military and civil customers, including the FAA. AMHS is developing open road tolling systems for the Florida Turnpike Toll System and the Texas Department of Transportation. AMHS also provides solutions to the homeland security market for border and perimeter security, including developing and implementing the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS) for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
Thales-Raytheon Systems, LLC (TRS)â€”TRS is a joint venture between Thales Group and Raytheon. TRS combines the two companiesâ€™ capabilities in Air Command and Control Systems (ACCS), Air Operations Centers, Battlefield Weapon Locating Radar and Military Air Surveillance Radar to provide cost-effective solutions for military air operations centers and joint operations centers. TRS builds the Firefinder Weapon Locating Radar system for the U.S. Army and international customers, as well as the U.S. Battle Control System (BCS).
Precision Technologies and Components (PTC)â€”PTC provides precision optical and electronic solutions, electronic hardware and software products that enhance the interoperability of communications systems, and a broad range of imaging capabilities, including visible to infrared focal plane arrays for thermal imaging, earth remote sensing and astronomy applications from its Raytheon Vision Systems and ELCAN products. PTC also designs and manufactures strategic mechanical products and provides related services through its Raytheon Precision Manufacturing products.
Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) â€”SAS, headquartered in El Segundo, California, is a leader in the design and development of integrated systems and solutions for advanced missions, including traditional and non-traditional intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, precision engagement, unmanned aerial operations, special forces operations and space. Leveraging advanced concepts, state-of-the-art technologies, and mission systems knowledge, SAS provides electro-optic/infrared sensors, airborne radars for surveillance and fire control applications, lasers, precision guidance systems, electronic warfare systems, and space-qualified systems for civilian and military applications.
In 2007, The Boeing Company selected SAS to supply advanced electronically scanned array (AESA) radar systems for the entire fleet of 224 U.S. Air Force F-15E aircraft. SAS was also selected for the U.S. Army common sensor payload program for manned and unmanned aircraft, which covers the integration, production and mission support of airborne electro optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensor payloads for several Army aviation platforms. In addition, SAS expanded its international activity with the award of contracts to deliver 79 radar warning receivers to the Royal Australian Air Force.
SASâ€™ major customers include the U.S. Navy, Air Force and Army, as well as classified and international customers.
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION FROM LATEST 10K
Raytheon Company develops technologically advanced, integrated products, services and solutions in four core defense markets: Sensing; Effects; Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) and Mission Support. We serve all branches of the U.S. military and numerous other U.S. government agencies, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and many allied governments.
We operate in six business segments: Integrated Defense Systems (IDS), Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), Missile Systems (MS), Network Centric Systems (NCS), Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) and Technical Services (TS). For a more detailed description of our segments, see â€śBusiness Segmentsâ€ť within Item 1 of this Form 10-K. As discussed in more detail below and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, in 2007, we sold Raytheon Aircraft and Flight Options. Accordingly, Raytheon Aircraft and Flight Options are presented as discontinued operations in this Form 10-K. For further information regarding Raytheon Aircraft, Flight Options and our Other Discontinued Operations, see Discontinued Operations below and â€śNote 2: Discontinued Operationsâ€ť within Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
In this section, we discuss our industry and how certain factors may affect our business, key elements of our strategy, how our financial performance is assessed and measured by management, and other business considerations, including certain risks and challenges to our business. Next, we discuss our critical accounting estimates, which are those estimates that are most important to both the reporting of our financial condition and results of operations and require managementâ€™s most difficult or subjective judgment. We then review our 2007 results of operations beginning with an overview of our total company results, followed by a more detailed review of those results by business segment and discontinued operations. We also review our financial condition and liquidity including our capital structure and resources, off-balance sheet arrangements, commitments and contingencies, and conclude with a discussion of our exposure to various market risks.
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) funding has grown substantially since 2001. The DoD base budget, which excludes emergency funding for operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other activities related to the Global War on Terrorism, has grown from $300 billion in fiscal year (FY) 2001 to $479 billion in FY 2008, or 7% compounded annually. The FY 2008 budget is $48 billion, or 11% more than the FY 2007 level.
DoD modernization funding, which consists of procurement and research and development (R&D), is of particular importance to defense contractors. Modernization funding in the base budget has grown at an annual rate of 8% since FY 2001. The FY 2008 modernization level of $176 billion is $16 billion, or 10% more than the FY 2007 level. A major reason for this consistent growth is the need to replace aging inventory of planes, ships, ground combat vehicles and other necessary warfighting equipment, often referred to as recapitalization by DoD officials.
The DoD Operations and Maintenance Account (O&M), which includes funding for training, services and other logistical support functions, is the other major account of importance to the defense industry. O&M in the DoD base budget has grown at an annual rate of 6% since FY 2001. The FY 2008 level of $164 billion is $18 billion, or 12% more than the FY 2007 level. The recent decision to increase active duty ground forces by 92,000 will likely increase O&M funding requirements in the near future.
Funding for the major operations of the Global War on Terrorism, notably the operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, have largely occurred through emergency supplemental appropriations rather than in the base budget appropriations. These emergency supplemental appropriations have risen from $63 billion in FY 2003 to the Presidentâ€™s request of $189 billion for FY 2008, or 25% compounded annually.
The share of funding devoted to the modernization accounts, primarily procurement, within these emergency supplemental appropriations has steadily grown. Of the Presidentâ€™s $189 billion request for FY 2008 emergency funding, 40% is for modernization, which is $26 billion, or 52% more than the FY 2007 level. This growth is fueled by a greater need for force protection of the warfighter as well as the growing need to replace or extensively refurbish equipment which is wearing down due to operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Looking forward, the DoD budget will be affected by several factors, including the following:
External threats to our national security, including potential security threats posed by extremist Islamic terrorism and countries such as Iran, North Korea, or a politically unstable Pakistan.
Funding for on-going operations in Iraq and, to a lesser extent, Afghanistan, which will require funding above and beyond the DoD base budget for their duration.
Future priorities of the next Administration which could result in significant changes in the DoD budget overall and how much within that budget is devoted to recapitalization, modernization and other DoD funding priorities beginning with the FY 2010 budget.
The overall health of the U.S. and world economies and the U.S. governmentâ€™s finances.
Based on the enacted and proposed levels of funding for DoD for FY 2008 and FY 2009, we expect continued defense spending growth in the near-term. However, projected defense spending becomes increasingly uncertain beyond that period due to numerous factors, including those noted above. For more information on the risks and uncertainties that could impact the U.S. governmentâ€™s demand for our products and services, see Item 1A â€śRisk Factorsâ€ť of this Form 10-K.
Internationally, the growing threat of additional terrorist activity, emerging nuclear states and conventional military threats have led to an increase in demand for defense products and services and homeland security solutions. We currently anticipate that international defense budgets will grow slightly faster than domestic budgets. International customers are expected to also continue to adopt similar defense transformation initiatives as the DoDâ€™s initiatives. We believe that this trend will continue because many international customers are facing the same threat environment changes as the United States and they wish to assure that their forces and systems will be interoperable with U.S. and NATO forces. Certain countries have increased their defense budgets due to strong regional or local economic growth which may allow them to simultaneously undertake domestic infrastructure, defense and homeland security projects. However, international demand is sensitive to changes in the priorities and budgets of international customers, which may be driven by potentially volatile regional and local economic and political factors, as well as U.S. foreign policy. For more information on the risks and uncertainties that could impact international demand for our products and services, see Item 1A â€śRisk Factorsâ€ť of this Form 10-K.
Our Strategy and Opportunities
The following are the key elements of our strategy:
Focus on key strategic pursuits, technology and mission assurance to protect and grow our position in our four core defense markets, Sensing, Effects, C3I and Mission Support.
Leverage our domain knowledge in these core defense markets, as well as in Mission Systems Integration, Homeland Security, and Information Assurance/Information Operations.
Expand our international business by increasing defense sales and seeking adjacent opportunities.
Be a Customer-focused company based on performance, relationships, and solutions.
Our Core Defense Markets
We believe that our technologies, domain knowledge and key capabilities and their alignment with customer needs in our core defense markets position us favorably to continue to grow and increase our market share. Our core markets also serve as a solid base from which to expand into adjacent and emerging markets, such as in Mission Systems Integration, Homeland Security, and Information Assurance/Information Operations. We continually explore opportunities to use our existing capabilities or develop or acquire additional ones to expand into closely adjacent markets.
Sensingâ€”We are focused on expanding beyond traditional RF (radio frequency)/EO (electro-optical) systems and into adjacent markets such as hyperspectral, acoustic and ultraviolet systems and sensors to detect Weapons of Mass
Destruction. Our SAS business segment was recently selected to supply Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radars for the Air Forceâ€™s next generation F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft. In addition, during 2007, our NCS business segment began supplying Thermal Weapon Sights (TWS) that allow individual soldiers to perform surveillance and targeting during day or night, in zero illumination, or in fog, smoke, dust and sand. Using acoustic sensor technologies, our IDS business segment developed the Undersea Coastal Surveillance System (UCSS) and Airborne Low Frequency Sonar (ALFS). IDS is also developing a new Advanced Spectroscopic Portal (ASP) designed to help border authorities scan for nuclear materials.
Effectsâ€”We are also focused on moving beyond kinetic energy weapons to provide a broader range of systems that generate desired effects on an enemy, including using the missile as a node in the network, urban warfare applications, directed energy, lethal and non-lethal applications and information operations. Our Effects capabilities include advanced airframes, guidance and navigation systems, high-resolution sensors, targeting and netted systems. In 2007, in addition to a number of successful intercepts with Standard Missile-3s, our MS business segment delivered its non-lethal Active Denial System 2 to the U.S. Air Force. The Active Denial System is designed to use millimeter wave technology to repel individuals without causing injury and can be used for military or homeland security applications.
C3Iâ€”We are seeking to continue to grow our market presence and expand our knowledge management and discovery capabilities. Our C3I capabilities include situational awareness, persistent surveillance, communications, mission planning, battle management command and control, intelligence and analysis, and integrated ground solutions. In 2007, our NCS business segment was awarded the U.S. Navyâ€™s Multiband Terminal (NMT) contract to develop and produce an advanced satellite communication system for seamless assured connectivity between a shipâ€™s or submarineâ€™s computer network and the Global Information Grid.
Mission Supportâ€”We are focused on enabling customer success through total life-cycle support that predicts customer needs, senses potential problems and proactively responds with the most appropriate solutions. Our Mission Support capabilities include technical services, system engineering, logistics, training, operations and maintenance. In 2007, our TS business segment was awarded the Warfighter FOCUS contract to oversee the landmark consolidation of the U.S. Armyâ€™s live, virtual and constructive training operations and support systems worldwide.
Mission Systems Integrationâ€”We believe that our expanding Mission Systems Integration (MSI) role will be a key differentiator for us. MSI is the integration of multiple systems (e.g., sensors, C3I, effects) to deliver a solution designed to accomplish a specific mission for a customer. MSI requires a thorough understanding of the customerâ€™s mission, the systems being integrated and the concept of operations. Our customer focus, program execution and the ability of our businesses to effectively work together on broad and complex initiatives are important factors in our ability to continue to expand our MSI role. Examples of our MSI initiatives in 2007 include our continued successful performance on the DDG 1000 program and our successes with intelligence community classified Horizontal Integration opportunitiesâ€”whose aim is to integrate and link mission elements, multiple sources of intelligence, and ultimately all elements of the intelligence community.
Homeland Securityâ€”We also intend to continue to grow our presence in the domestic and international homeland security markets, focusing on transportation security, critical infrastructure protection, energy security, intelligence program support, law enforcement solutions, and emergency preparedness and response. In 2007, our IIS business segment was awarded e-Borders, a contract to develop and implement an advanced border control and security program for the U.K. Home Office.
Information Assurance/Information Operationsâ€”In 2008, we established a new product line of cyber operations and information security solutions to address the emerging information assurance and information operations market. We intend to leverage and expand our information assurance capabilities as well as the capabilities of Raytheon Oakley Systems (which we acquired in 2007).
Because of the breadth of our offerings, our systems integration capability and our strong legacy in the international marketplace, we believe that we are well-positioned to continue to grow our international business. As discussed under â€śInternational Considerations,â€ť we believe that demand is growing for solutions in air and missile defense, homeland security including border surveillance, air traffic management, precision engagement, naval systems integration and intelligence and surveillance and reconnaissance. In addition, as coalition forces increasingly integrate military operations worldwide, we believe that our leadership in network centric operations will continue to be a key discriminator.
In 2007, our international bookings grew from $3.4 billion in 2006 to $6.7 billion in 2007. Notable awards include e-Borders, a contract with the U.K. Home Office, and Air Warfare Destroyer, a contract with Australia to design, develop and procure the combat system for the new Hobart Class destroyers.
Focus on the Customer and Execution
Our customer focus continues to be a critical part of our strategyâ€”underpinned by a focus on performance, relationships and solutions. Performance means being able to meet customer commitments and is ensured through strong processes, metrics and oversight. We maintain a â€śprocess architectureâ€ť that spans our broad programs and pursuits. It consists of processes such as Integrated Product Development System (IPDS) which assures consistency of evaluation and execution at each step in a programâ€™s life-cycle. These processes are linked to an array of front-end and back-end metrics. With this structure, we are able to track results and be alerted to potential issues through numerous oversight mechanisms, including operating reviews and annual operating plan reviews.
We are also continuing to build strong customer relationships by listening to customers, working with them as partners and including them on Raytheon Six Sigma TM teams to jointly improve their programs and processes. We are increasingly focused on responding to our customersâ€™ changing requirements with rapid and effective solutions to real problems.
Other Business Considerations
We currently are involved in approximately 15,000 contracts. Our largest contract in 2007 was DDG 1000, which accounted for less than 5% of total sales in 2007. We believe that our diverse portfolio of programs and capabilities is well suited to a changing defense environment. However, we face numerous challenges and risks, as discussed below and under Item 1A â€śRisk Factorsâ€ť of this Form 10-K.
We remain dependent on the U.S. government for a substantial portion of our business. Sales to the U.S. government may be affected by changes in procurement policies, budget considerations, changing defense requirements and political developments such as changes in Congress and the Administration. The influence of these factors, which are largely beyond our control, could impact our financial position and results of operations. In addition, we operate in highly competitive markets. These markets are becoming increasingly more concentrated in response to the trend of certain customers awarding a smaller number of large multi-service contracts and industry consolidation. Additionally, the DoD and international customers are increasingly turning to commercial contractors for IT and other support work.
Our future success is dependent on our ability to execute our business strategies. First, we must continue to perform on existing programs, as past performance is an important selection criteria for new competitive awards. Second, we must successfully execute our growth strategies, as discussed above. In order to execute, we must be able to identify the most appropriate opportunities to leverage our capabilities and technologies, as well as emerging customer trends in these markets. We then must successfully develop, market and support new offerings and technologies for those markets which will require the investment of significant financial resources and substantial management attention.
We also focus on significant changes in our estimates of contract sales, costs and profits, to assess program performance and the potential impact of such changes on our results of operations. As discussed in greater detail in â€śCritical Accounting Estimatesâ€ť, our method of accounting for our contracts requires that we estimate contract revenues and costs. Due to the size, length of time and nature of the work required to be performed on many of our contracts, our estimates are complicated and subject to many variables. We review our contract estimates periodically to assess whether revisions are warranted and make revisions and adjustments to our estimates in the ordinary course. Changes in estimates of contract sales, costs and profits are recognized using a cumulative catch-up, which recognizes in the current period the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods. A significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the profitability of one or more of our contracts. In addition, given our number of contracts and our accounting methods, we may recognize changes in multiple contracts in a fiscal quarter that, individually, may be significant, but that result, on a net basis, in no impact on our results of operations. Alternatively, we may recognize changes in numerous contracts in a fiscal quarter that, individually, may be immaterial, but that result, collectively, in a significant change to our results of operations.
Management is focused on the following financial indicators:
Bookingsâ€”a forward-looking metric that measures the value of new contracts awarded to us during the year.
Net Salesâ€”a growth metric that measures our revenue for the current year.
Operating Profit from Continuing Operationsâ€”which measures our profit from continuing operations for the year, before interest and taxes.
Free Cash Flowâ€”a measure of the cash that is generated in a given year that we can use to make strategic investments to grow our business or return to our shareholders.
Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)â€”a measure of the efficiency and effectiveness of our use of capital.
Considered in the aggregate, we believe these five metrics are strong indicators of our overall performance and our ability to create shareholder value. We feel that these measures are balanced among long-term and short-term performance, growth and efficiency. We use these and other performance metrics for executive compensation purposes.
In addition, we maintain a strong focus on program execution and the prudent management of capital and investments in order to maximize operating profit, cash and continue to improve ROIC.
Gross bookings were $25.5 billion in 2007, $22.4 billion in 2006 and $20.8 billion in 2005, resulting in backlog of $36.6 billion, $33.8 billion and $31.5 billion at December 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005, respectively. Backlog represents future sales expected to be recognized over the contract period, which is generally the next several years. Depending upon the customer and their funding sources, our orders might be structured as annual follow-on contracts, or as one large multi-year order or long-term award. As a result, period-to-period comparisons of backlog are not necessarily indicative of future workloads.
Net sales were $21.3 billion in 2007, $19.7 billion in 2006 and $18.5 billion in 2005.
Operating income was $2.3 billion in 2007, $1.9 billion in 2006 and $1.6 billion in 2005. Operating income as a percentage of net sales was 10.9%, 9.9% and 8.8% in 2007, 2006 and 2005, respectively. Included in operating income was a FAS/CAS Pension Adjustment, described below in Consolidated Results of Operations, of $259 million in 2007, $362 million in 2006 and $448 million of expense in 2005.
Operating cash flow from continuing operations was $1.2 billion in 2007, $2.5 billion in 2006 and $2.4 billion in 2005. Total debt was $2.3 billion at December 31, 2007 compared to $4.0 billion at December 31, 2006.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
Our consolidated financial statements are based on the application of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) which requires us to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts reported in our financial statements and the accompanying notes. Future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty. Therefore, the determination of estimates requires the exercise of judgment. Actual results could differ from those estimates and any such differences may be material to our consolidated financial statements. We believe that the estimates set forth below may involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity in their application than our other accounting estimates and represent the critical accounting estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We believe our judgments related to these accounting estimates are appropriate. However, if different assumptions or conditions were to prevail, the results could be materially different from the amounts recorded.
Revenue Recognition â€”The method by which we recognize revenue is determined by the type of contract or arrangement entered into with the customer. Each contract or arrangement we enter into is analyzed to determine which revenue recognition method is appropriate based on the terms and conditions and nature of the contract. The significant estimates considered in recognizing revenue for the types of revenue-generating activities we are involved in are described below. We define service revenue as those activities not associated with the design, development or production of tangible assets and the delivery of software code or a specific capability. We also classify contract revenues as product or service depending on the predominant attributes of the relevant underlying contracts. Service revenue represented less than 10% of our total revenues in 2007, 2006 and 2005.
Percentage of Completion Accounting
We account for our contracts associated with the design, development, manufacture, or modification of complex aerospace or electronic equipment and related services, or those otherwise within the scope of Chapter 11 of Accounting Research Bulletin No. 43, Government Contracts (ARB No. 43) or Statement of Position 81-1, Accounting for Performance of Construction-Type and Certain Production-Type Contracts (SOP 81-1), such as certain cost-plus service contracts, using the percentage-of-completion accounting method. Under this method, revenue is recognized based on the extent of progress towards completion of the long-term contract. The selection of the method by which to measure such progress towards completion requires judgment and is based on the nature of the products or services to be provided. Our analysis of these contracts also contemplates whether contracts should be combined or segmented. The combination of two or more contracts requires significant judgment in determining whether the intent of entering into the contracts was effectively to enter into a single project, which should be combined to reflect an overall profit rate. Additionally, judgment is involved in determining whether a single contract or group of contracts may be segregated based on how the contract was negotiated and the performance criteria. The decision to combine a group of contracts or segment a contract could change the amount of revenue and gross profit recorded in a given period had consideration not been given to these factors. We combine closely related contracts when all the applicable criteria under SOP 81-1 are met. Similarly, we may segment a project, which may consist of a single contract or a group of contracts, with varying rates of profitability, only if all the applicable criteria under SOP 81-1 are met.
We generally use the cost-to-cost measure of progress for all of our long-term contracts unless we believe another method more clearly measures progress towards completion of the contract. Under the cost-to-cost measure of progress, the extent of progress towards completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred-to-date to the total estimated costs at completion of the contract. Contract costs include material, labor and subcontracting costs, as well as an allocation of indirect costs. Revenues, including estimated earned fees or profits, are recorded as costs are incurred. Due to the nature of the work required to be performed on many of our contracts, the estimation of total revenue and cost at completion is complex and subject to many variables. Management must make various assumptions and estimates related to contract deliverables including design requirements, performance of subcontractors, cost and availability of materials, productivity and manufacturing efficiency and labor availability. Incentive and award fees which are generally awarded at the discretion of the customer, as well as penalties related to contract performance, are considered in estimating profit rates. Estimates of award fees are based on actual awards and anticipated performance. Incentive provisions which increase or decrease earnings based solely on a single significant event are generally not recognized until the event occurs. Such incentives and penalties are recorded when there is sufficient information for us to assess anticipated performance. Our claims on contracts are recorded only if it is probable that the claim will result in additional contract revenue and the amounts can be reliably estimated.
We have a standard quarterly management process in which management reviews the progress and performance of our significant contracts. As part of this process, management reviews include, but are not limited to, any outstanding key contract matters, progress towards completion and the related schedule, identified risks and opportunities and the related changes in revenues and costs. Based on this analysis, any adjustments to revenue, costs of sales, and profit are recorded as necessary in the period in which they become known. Changes in estimates of contract sales, costs and profits are recognized using a cumulative catch-up, which recognizes in the current period the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods. A significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the profitability of one or more of our contracts. When estimates of total costs to be incurred on a contract exceed total estimates of revenue to be earned, a provision for the entire loss on the contract is recorded in the period the loss is determined.
Other Revenue Methods
To a much lesser extent, we also enter into contracts that are not associated with the design, development, manufacture, or modification of complex aerospace or electronic equipment and related services, or not otherwise within the scope of ARB No. 43 or SOP 81-1. We account for those contracts in accordance with the Securities and Exchange Commissionâ€™s Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 104, Revenue Recognition (SAB 104), or other relevant revenue recognition accounting literature. Revenue under such contracts is generally recognized upon delivery or as the service is performed. Revenue on contracts to sell software is recognized in accordance with the requirements of Statement of Position 97-2, Software Revenue Recognition. Revenue from non-software license fees is recognized over the expected life of the continued involvement with the customer. Royalty revenue is recognized when earned. Revenue generated from fixed price service contracts not associated with the design, development, manufacture or modification of complex aerospace or electronic equipment is recognized as services are rendered once persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, our price is fixed or determinable, and we have determined that collectibility is reasonably assured.
We apply the separation guidance in Emerging Issues Task Force 00-21, Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables (EITF 00-21) for contracts with multiple deliverables. Revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables are evaluated to determine if the deliverables should be divided into more than one unit of accounting. For contracts with more than one unit of accounting, we recognize revenue for each deliverable based on the revenue recognition policies discussed above.
The majority of our sales are driven by pricing based on costs incurred to produce products or perform services under contracts with the U.S. government. Cost-based pricing is determined under the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR). The FAR provides guidance on the types of costs that are allowable in establishing prices for goods and services under U.S. government contracts. For example, costs such as those related to charitable contributions, advertising, interest expense and public relations are unallowable. In addition, we may enter into agreements with the U.S. government that address the allowability and allocability of costs to contracts for specific matters. Certain costs incurred in the performance of our U.S. government contracts are required to be recorded under GAAP but are not currently allocable to contracts. Such costs are deferred and primarily include a portion of our environmental expenses, asset retirement obligations, certain restructuring costs, deferred state income tax and workersâ€™ compensation. These costs are allocated to contracts when they are paid or otherwise agreed. We regularly assess the probability of recovery of these costs. This assessment requires us to make assumptions about the extent of cost recovery under our contracts and the amount of future contract activity. If the level of backlog in the future does not support the continued deferral of these costs, the profitability of our remaining contracts could be adversely affected.
Pension and other postretirement costs are allocated to our contracts as allowed costs based upon the U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS). The CAS requirements for pension and other postretirement costs differ from the financial accounting standards (FAS) requirements under U.S. GAAP. Given the inherent difficulty in matching individual expense and income items between the CAS and FAS requirements to determine specific recoverability, we have not estimated the incremental FAS expense to be recoverable under our expected future contract activity, and therefore have not deferred any FAS expense for pension and other postretirement plans in 2005-2007. This resulted in $259 million, $362 million and $448 million of incremental expense reflected in our results of operations for 2007, 2006 and 2005, respectively, for the difference between CAS and FAS requirements for our pension plans in those years.
Pension Costs â€”We have pension plans covering the majority of our employees, including certain employees in foreign countries. The selection of the assumptions used to determine pension expense involves significant judgment. Our long-term return on assets (ROA) and discount rate assumptions are the key variables in determining pension expense and the funded status of our pension plans.
The long-term ROA assumption for our domestic pension plans in 2007 was 8.75%, unchanged from 2006. If we significantly changed our investment allocation or strategy, it could change our assumed long-term rate of return. An increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the expected ROA assumption would increase or decrease our estimated pension expense in 2007 by approximately $30 million. For every 2.5% that the actual domestic pension plan asset return exceeds or is less than the long-term ROA assumption for 2007, our estimated pension expense would change by approximately $20 million.
The discount rate assumption is determined by using a model consisting of a theoretical bond portfolio for which the timing and amount of cash flows approximates the estimated benefit payments of our pension plans. The discount rate assumption for our domestic pension plans at December 31, 2007, is 6.5%, an increase from 6.0% at December 31, 2006. An increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the discount rate assumption for 2007 would decrease or increase our estimated pension expense for 2007 by approximately $45 million.
Other variables that can impact the pension funded status and expense include demographic experience such as the rates of salary increase, retirement, turnover and mortality. In addition, certain pension plans provide a lump sum form of benefit which varies based upon externally determined interest rates. Assumptions for these variables are set based on actual and projected plan experience. Effective December 31, 2005, we updated our mortality assumption for our pension and postretirement benefit programs to a blend of our own historical experience and a table representing broad expectations of U.S. mortality rates to reflect changes in the lifespan of the pension population. This assumption change resulted in an increase in 2006 pension expense of $130 million.
In general, we value our pension assets based upon quoted or observable market prices or other standard valuation techniques which generally assume a liquid market. In addition, we estimate the value of certain non-readily marketable investments, which are less than 5% of our pension assets at December 31, 2007, based on the most recently available asset data which can be up to three months in arrears.
In addition, we have $3.2 billion of deferred losses in our pension and other postretirement benefit plans resulting primarily from differences between actual and assumed asset returns, changes in discount rates, changes in plan provisions and differences between actual and assumed demographic experience. To the extent we continue to have fluctuations in these items we will experience increases or decreases in our funded status and related accrued retiree benefit obligation. For every 25 basis point change in discount rate, our projected benefit obligation for the pension plans as of December 31, 2007, would change by approximately $430 million. In addition, a 1% change in the actual domestic pension plan asset return compared to the long-term ROA assumption would change the market value of pension plan assets as of December 31, 2007, by approximately $130 million. The deferred losses are amortized and included in future pension expense over the average employee service period of approximately 11 years. As described in Note 1 to the Financial Statements, we adopted Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 158, Employersâ€™ Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plansâ€”an amendment of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statements No. 87, 88, 106 and 132(R) (SFAS No. 158) for the year ended December 31, 2006, which resulted in a $1.9 billion increase in accrued retiree benefits and other long-term liabilities and a corresponding $1.3 billion decrease, net of taxes, in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income in stockholdersâ€™ equity.
Impairment of Goodwillâ€” We evaluate goodwill for impairment annually during the fourth quarter and in any interim period in which circumstances arise that indicate our goodwill may be impaired. Indicators of impairment include, but are not limited to, the loss of significant business; significant decreases in federal government appropriations or funding for our contracts; or other significant adverse changes in industry or market conditions. No events occurred during the periods presented that indicated the existence of an impairment with respect to our goodwill related to continuing operations. We estimate the fair value of our reporting units using a discounted cash flow model based on our most recent long-range plan and compare the estimated fair value of each reporting unit to its net book value, including goodwill. We discount the related cash flow forecasts using the weighted average cost of capital method at the date of evaluation. Preparation of forecasts for use in the long-range plan and the selection of the discount rate involve significant judgments that we base primarily on existing firm orders, expected future orders, contracts with suppliers, labor agreements and general market conditions. Significant changes in these forecasts or the discount rate selected could affect the estimated fair value of one or more of our reporting units and could result in a goodwill impairment charge in a future period. There was no indication of goodwill impairment for continuing operations as a result of our impairment analysis. If we are required to record an impairment charge in the future, it could materially affect our results of operations.
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION FOR LATEST QUARTER
Raytheon Company develops technologically advanced, integrated products, services and solutions in four core defense markets: Sensing; Effects; Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I); and Mission Support. We serve all branches of the U.S. Military and numerous other U.S. Government agencies, as well as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and many allied governments.
We operate in six business segments: Integrated Defense Systems (IDS), Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), Missile Systems (MS), Network Centric Systems (NCS), Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) and Technical Services (TS). For a more detailed description of our segments, see â€śBusiness Segmentsâ€ť within Item 1 of our 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following discussion should be read along with our 2007 Annual Report on Form 10-K and our Financial Statements included in this Form 10-Q.
Consolidated Results of Operations
As described in our Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements on page 3 of this Form 10-Q, our interim period results of operations and period-to-period comparisons of such results, particularly at a segment level, may not be indicative of our future operating results. Additionally, we use a fiscal calendar, which may cause the number of workdays in the current and comparable prior interim period to differ and could affect period-to-period comparisons. There were 64 workdays in the second quarters of 2008 and 2007 and 127 workdays in the first six months of 2008 compared to 123 workdays in the first six months of 2007. The following discussions of comparative results among periods should be viewed in this context. We also generally express changes in sales in terms of volume in our discussions of comparative period results. Volume generally refers to increases or decreases in revenues related to varying production activity levels or service levels on individual contracts. Volume changes will typically drive a corresponding margin change based on the profit rate for a particular contract. We generally express changes in segment operating income in terms of volume or changes in program performance. Segment operating margin reflects the performance on programs and changes in contract mix. Changes in program performance typically relate to profit recognition associated with revisions to total estimated costs at completion that reflect improved or deteriorated operating performance or award fee rates. We record changes in estimates of contract sales, costs and profits using a cumulative catch-up, which recognizes in the current period the cumulative effect of the changes in estimates on current and prior periods.
The overall increase in sales in the second quarter of 2008 was spread across all segments as discussed below in Segment Results. Sales to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) were 84.5% of sales compared to 78.8% of sales in the second quarter of 2008 and 2007, respectively and total sales to the U.S. Government were 88.1% of sales compared to 85.6% of sales in the second quarter of 2008 and 2007, respectively. Included in U.S. Government sales were foreign military sales of $449 million and $362 million in the second quarter of 2008 and 2007, respectively. Total international sales, including foreign military sales, were $1,122 million or 19.1% of sales in the second quarter of 2008 compared to $1,082 million or 20.5% of sales in the second quarter of 2007.
The overall increase in sales in the first six months of 2008 was spread across all segments as discussed below in Segment Results. Sales to the U.S. DoD were 83.3% of sales compared to 80.8% of sales in the first six months of 2008 and 2007, respectively and total sales to the U.S. Government were 87.4% of sales compared to 86.3% of sales in the first six months of 2008 and 2007, respectively. Included in U.S. Government sales were foreign military sales of $847 million and $702 million in the first six months of 2008 and 2007, respectively. Total international sales, including foreign military sales, were $2,166 million or 19.3% of sales in the first six months of 2008 compared to $2,001 million or 19.8% of sales in the first six months of 2007.
Gross margin reflects a FAS/CAS Pension Adjustment of $34 million and $63 million of expense in the second quarter of 2008 and 2007, respectively, and $67 million and $125 million of expense in the first six months of 2008 and 2007, respectively. The FAS/CAS Pension Adjustment, which we report as a separate line item in our segment results, represents the difference between our pension expense or income under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 87, Employersâ€™ Accounting for Pensions (SFAS No. 87), and our pension expense under Cost Accounting Standards (CAS). SFAS No. 87 outlines the methodology used to determine pension expense or income for financial reporting purposes, which is not necessarily indicative of the funding requirements for pension plans that we determine by other factors. CAS prescribe the allocation to and recovery of pension costs on U.S. Government contracts and are a major factor in determining our pension funding requirements. Our segment results only include pension expense as determined under CAS that we generally recover through the pricing of our products and services to the U.S. Government.
In accordance with the requirements of SFAS No. 158, Employersâ€™ Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans, SFAS No. 106, Employersâ€™ Accounting for Postretirement Benefits Other Than Pensions, and SFAS No. 87, pension and other postretirement benefit assets and liabilities are valued annually at the end of the year for purposes of determining funded status and future year pension expense. Our long-term return on assets and discount rate assumptions are key variables in making such determinations. Refer to â€śCritical Accounting Estimatesâ€ť within Item 7 of our 2007 Form 10-K for more information regarding our long-term return on assets and discount rate assumptions. There has been a negative return on pension assets through June 29, 2008 compared to our assumption of a positive annual return of 8.75% at December 31, 2007. If the actual rate of return on our plan assets continues to be below our assumed 8.75% rate of return through December 31, 2008, it would negatively impact our funded status at year end and increase pension expense in future years. In addition, if the current corporate bond yield environment as of June 29, 2008 continues through December 31, 2008, it may result in a higher discount rate than our discount rate assumption of 6.5% at December 31, 2007 and positively impact our funded status at year end. The ultimate impact on our future pension expense and funded status will be determined based upon market conditions in effect when we perform our annual valuation for the December 31, 2008 financial statements.
Administrative and selling expenses and research and development expenses increased in the second quarter of 2008 and the first six months of 2008 primarily due to higher volume and remained consistent as a percent of sales.
Included in operating income is Corporate and Eliminations. Corporate and Eliminations includes Corporate expenses and intersegment sales and profit eliminations. Corporate expenses represent unallocated costs and certain other corporate costs not considered part of managementâ€™s evaluation of reportable segment operating performance, including the net costs associated with our residual commuter aircraft portfolio. We describe below the changes in operating income by segment and from Corporate and Eliminations.
The decrease in interest expense in the second quarter of 2008 and the first six months of 2008 compared to the second quarter of 2007 and the first six months of 2007 was primarily due to lower average outstanding debt.
The decrease in interest income in the second quarter of 2008 compared to the second quarter of 2007 was primarily due to a lower average cash balance and a decrease in interest rates. The decrease in interest income in the first six months of 2008 compared to the first six months of 2007 was primarily due to a decrease in interest rates and a lower average cash balance.
Other (income) expense, net in the second quarter of 2007 and the first six months of 2007 included a $59 million loss on the repurchases of long-term debt.
The effective tax rate from continuing operations was 34.2% and 33.8% in the second quarter of 2008 and 2007, respectively, and 33.3% and 33.6% in the first six months of 2008 and 2007, respectively, reflecting the U.S. statutory rate adjusted for various permanent differences between book and tax reporting. The effective tax rate in the second quarter of 2008 was lower than the statutory rate due to manufacturing tax benefits and certain dividend deductions, and was partially offset by various non-deductible expenses. The effective tax rate in the first six months of 2008 was lower than the statutory rate due to manufacturing tax benefits, certain dividend deductions and tax benefits related to certain refund claims, and was partially offset by various non-deductible expenses. The effective tax rate in the second quarter of 2007 and the first six months of 2007 was lower than the statutory rate due to manufacturing tax benefits, certain dividend deductions and the research and development tax credit, and was partially offset by various non-deductible expenses. The effective rate in the second quarter of 2008 was 0.4% higher than the second quarter of 2007 primarily due to the expiration of the research and development tax credit in 2007. The effective tax rate in the first six months of 2008 was 0.3% lower than the first six months of 2007 primarily due to the tax benefits related to certain refund claims in the first quarter of 2008, partially offset by the effect of the research and development tax credit expiration in 2007.
Income from continuing operations was $426 million or $1.00 per diluted share on 427.7 million average shares outstanding in the second quarter of 2008 compared to $355 million or $0.79 per diluted share on 448.8 million average shares outstanding in the second quarter of 2007. The increase in income from continuing operations of $71 million in the second quarter of 2008 compared to the second quarter of 2007 was primarily due to lower other expense, net of $58 million primarily related to the loss on repurchases of debt in the second quarter of 2007 noted above, $44 million of volume, net of program performance, discussed below in Segment Results, and lower FAS/CAS expense of $29 million, offset by higher taxes of $40 million related primarily to our higher income and higher net interest expense of $20 million.
Income from continuing operations was $826 million or $1.92 per diluted share on 430.0 million average shares outstanding in the first six months of 2008 compared to $679 million or $1.51 per diluted share on 451.0 million average shares outstanding in the first six months of 2007. The increase in income from continuing operations of $147 million in the first six months of 2008 compared to the first six months of 2007 was primarily due to $102 million of volume, net of program performance discussed below in Segment Results, lower FAS/CAS expense of $58 million and lower other expense, net of $56 million primarily related to the loss on repurchases of debt noted above, offset by higher taxes of $70 million related primarily to our higher income. Included in the $102 million of volume, partially offset by program performance, in the first six months of 2008 is a $13 million decrease in Corporate and Eliminations compared to the first six months of 2007 driven primarily by a decrease in Corporate expenses in the first quarter of 2008.
Included in income from discontinued operations, net of tax, in the second quarter of 2007 and the first six months of 2007 was $986 million related to the gain on sale of Raytheon Aircraft.
Net income decreased in the second quarter of 2008 and the first six months of 2008 primarily due to the gain on the sale of Raytheon Aircraft noted above partially offset by increased income from continuing operations as noted above.
Net Sales. The increase in sales in the second quarter of 2008 of $91 million was primarily due to $93 million of higher volume from two joint battlefield sensor programs, our various Patriot programs and a U.S. Navy combat systems program.
The increase in sales in the first six months of 2008 of $191 million was primarily due to $133 million of higher volume from two joint battlefield sensor programs and a U.S. Navy combat systems program.
Operating Income and Margin. The decrease in operating income of $3 million in the second quarter of 2008 was primarily due to favorable performance adjustments recorded on certain programs in the second quarter of 2007, partially offset by increased volume. The decline in operating margin was primarily due to favorable program performance adjustments in the second quarter of 2007 and the completion of certain contracts.
The increase in operating income of $9 million in the first six months of 2008 was primarily due to increased volume, partially offset by favorable performance adjustments recorded on certain programs in the first six months of 2007. The decline in operating margin was primarily due to favorable program performance adjustments in the first six months of 2007 and the completion of certain contracts.
Backlog and Bookings. Backlog was $8,882 million at June 29, 2008 compared to $9,296 million at December 31, 2007. Bookings in the second quarter of 2008 were $69 million lower than the second quarter of 2007. In the second quarter of 2008, IDS booked $140 million for the upgrade and support of the Patriot system for Kuwait. IDS also booked $143 million for the Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment (RAID) program for the U.S. Army.
Bookings in the first six months of 2008 were $219 million lower than the first six months of 2007, primarily due to the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) radar program and the Zumwalt Class Destroyer program awards in the first quarter of 2007, partially offset by the Patriot awards described below. In the first six months of 2008, IDS booked $510 million on certain contracts for the design, development and support of the Patriot system for international customers, including $285 million for South Korea, $140 million for Kuwait and $85 million for Taiwan. IDS also booked $133 million to provide engineering services support for a Patriot air and missile defense program and $143 million for the RAID program, both for the U.S. Army.
Net Sales. The increase in sales in the second quarter of 2008 of $163 million and in the first six months of 2008 of $267 million were primarily due to $105 million and $161 million, respectively, of higher volume from an advanced border control and security program.
Operating Income and Margin. The increase in operating income of $4 million in the second quarter of 2008 and $1 million in the first six months of 2008 were principally due to increased volume, partially offset by certain acquisition costs and other investments in cyber operations and information security capabilities. The decline in operating margin in the second quarter of 2008 and the first six months of 2008 was due primarily to the acquisition costs and investments noted above.
Backlog and Bookings . Backlog was $5,756 million at June 29, 2008 compared to $5,636 million at December 31, 2007. Bookings in the second quarter of 2008 were $212 million higher than the second quarter of 2007, primarily due to various classified bookings. In the second quarter of 2008, IIS booked $497 million on a number of classified contracts, including $379 million on a major classified program.
Bookings in the first six months of 2008 were $696 million higher than the first six months of 2007, primarily due to various classified bookings and $182 million booked on the U.K. e-Borders contract. In the first six months of 2008, IIS booked $1,053 million on a number of classified contracts, including $379 million and $171 million on two major classified programs.
Jim Singer - Investor Relations
Thank you, Angela. Good morning, everyone. Thank you for joining us today for our second quarter earnings call. Our results were released this morning, the audio feed of this call and the charts referenced are available on our website at www.raytheon.com.
Following the live call, an archive of both the audio replay and a printable version of the slides will be available on our Investor Relations website.
With me today are Bill Swanson, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer; and Dave Wajsgras, our Chief Financial Officer. We'll start with some brief remarks by Bill and Dave and then we will leave plenty of time for questions.
We ask that you please limit your questions to two per caller to allow broader participation.
Before I turn the call over to Bill, I would like to caution you regarding our forward-looking statements. Any matters discussed today that are not historical facts, particularly comments regarding the company's future plans, objectives and expected performance constitute forward-looking statements. These statements are based on a wide range of assumptions that the company believes are reasonable, but are subject to a range of uncertainties and risks that are summarized at the end of our earnings release and we discuss in detail in our SEC filings.
With that, I will turn the call over to Bill.
William H. Swanson - Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
Thank you, Jim. Good morning, everyone. I am pleased with the performance of all our businesses, which resulted in another strong quarter for Raytheon. We had solid bookings, sales, op income and EPS in the quarter, each of which experienced double-digit growth over Q2 in 2007.
Overall, very good results for the quarter and year-to-date. As we look ahead, our view for the balance of the year is also positive. Our operational improvements have enabled us to increase our outlook for the year on sales, EPS, operating cash flow and ROIC, which Dave will address in more detail shortly. All of this bodes well for the future.
I want to leave enough time today for questions, so I will be brief.
Let me just reiterate that I believe Raytheon's strong results reflect our continued focus on execution and providing our customers with the best technology and solutions for their missions. This was reinforced last week in the U.K. at the Farnborough International Air Show, where we had the opportunity to meet with many customers and get their positive feedback.
Raytheon team continues to execute with excellence and customer focus on all our programs. I am proud of the work they do everyday for our customers.
With that, I will turn it over to Dave.
David C. Wajsgras - Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Okay. Thanks, Bill. I have a few opening remarks starting with the second quarter highlights and then we'll move on to questions. During my remarks, I'll be referring to the web slides we issued earlier this morning.
Okay, if everyone would please move to page three. As Bill noted, we performed well in the second quarter. We had solid bookings and ended the quarter with a strong backlog. Sales of $5.9 billion were up 11% from Q2 of last year, and EPS from continuing operation of $1 was up 27%.
Operating cash flow from continuing operations was $767 million, which was significantly better than the same period last year. The company repurchased 5.2 million shares of common stock for $340 million, bringing the total amount repurchased for the year to 10.7 million shares.
Looking forward, we have increased our guidance in a number of areas that I'll address in just a moment.
Turning now to page four, let me start by providing some detail on our second quarter results. Our total company booking for the quarter was $6 billion. A notable award for the quarter included 412 million of missiles for AMRAAM, roughly split 50/50 between international and domestic customers. 376 million for the production of Standard Missile-3 for the U.S. Navy and the Missile Defense Agency and 245 million for the production of Evolved SeaSparrow missiles for international customers in the U.S. Navy.
TS booked an additional 309 million of work for the Warfighter FOCUS contract for the U.S. army to provide live, virtual and constructive training services bringing the year-to-date bookings on this program to $419 million. 179 million was booked at IDS for the upgrade and support of the Patriot system for Kuwait and South Korea and 143 million for the Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment program for the U.S. Army.
NCS booked 115 million for the AMF Joint Tactical Radio System or JTRS program. IIS and SAS booked over $800 million on a numbers of classified contracts, the largest being close to $400 million.
Backlog at the end of the second quarter was 37.5 billion, compared to 33.3 billion at the end of the second quarter of 2007. Our total backlog has improved by about $900 million year-to-date.
Turning now to page five. As I noted earlier, second quarter EPS from continuing operations was $1, versus $0.79 in the prior year. The increase was driven by operational improvement and lower pension expense. The company also incurred a $0.09 charge in 2007 associated with the early retirement of approximately $1 billion of debt.
Before moving to page six, I would like to briefly address operating cash flow, which was notably better than the same period last year. The improvement this quarter was attributable to a reduction in working capital items, combined with lower cash tax payments. The prior year included $316 million of cash payments related to the sale of the Raytheon Aircraft Company.
If you now move to page six, you can see that overall sales grew by 11% in the second quarter of 2008 and all businesses contributed to this increase. IDS net sales of 1.3 billion were up 8% compared to the same period last year. This was primarily due to growth on U.S. Army programs.
Intelligence and Information Systems had second quarter 2008 net sales of 829 million, up 24%, driven by the e-Borders contract. Missile Systems net sales of 1.4 billion were up 9% from the second quarter 2007 with higher volume from the Phalanx, Paveway and AMRAAM programs.
Network Centric Systems had second quarter 2008 net sales of $1.2 billion, up 12% when compared to the second quarter 2007. The most significant driver here is centered on support for U.S. Army communication and EO/IR programs.
Space and Airborne Systems had second quarter 2008 net sales of 1.1 billion, up 3% versus the second quarter 2007.
Technical Services had second quarter 2008 net sales of $647 million, up 26% as a result of higher volume on training programs. We were pleased with the performance of Technical Services and feel that the strategy around mission support and training is paying of.
Turning now to page seven, our overall operating margin for the quarter was 11.3%, which was an increase of 10 basis points from the second quarter of 2007, as a result of lower pension expense, which was in part attributable to the discretionary contributions we made last year.
Turning back to our businesses, as we discussed on our prior calls, IDS as expected, experienced lower comparable margins, primarily as a result of a change in program mix and a positive adjustment last year related to award fees. The 16.6% margin for the quarter is consistent with our guidance for the year.
IIS margins for the quarter reflect the impact of acquisition cost and other investments, as previously discussed in cyber operations and information security capabilities. Missiles posted solid margins in the quarter, improving 70 basis points to 11.5%, primarily due to our award fees.
As for NCS, the business continued to have strong results. You may recall that last year's second quarter margins had a cumulative benefit from performance improvements recognized on some U.S. Army programs.
SAS and Technical Services, both posted higher margins for the quarter, primarily driven by improved operational performance.
Moving to our financial outlook on page eight. We now expect sales to be in a range of between $22.6 billion and $23.1 billion, an increase of $200 million over our prior guidance. Net interest expense is now expected to be in a range of between $40 million and $55 million as a result of improved cash flow. Our EPS outlook has improved by $0.15, and I will address this in further detail in a moment.
With respect to operating cash flow from continuing operations, our outlook is now expected to be in the range of between $2.2 billion and $2.4 billion, an improvement of $200 million. This increase is due to higher income as well as our focus on and results in working capital management.
And finally, we have increased our ROIC guidance by 30 basis points to a range of between 9.9 and 10.4%.
Moving now to page nine. As I mentioned earlier, we have raised our full year EPS guidance to a range of between $3.80 and $3.95. This increase is driven primarily by improved operational performance and lower taxes. The improvement in our effective tax rate is driven by the realization of favorable outcomes on several tax planning initiatives.
If you'd now move to page 10, I will put a little more color on where we see each of our businesses. With respect to sales, our current outlook reflects further clarity on the DOD supplemental and customer priorities for the balance of the year. Based on this, we have increased our sales outlook for NCS and TS. We now expect NCS sales to be in the range of between $4.4 billion and $4.6 billion, and TS to be in the range of between $2.3 billion and $2.5 billion.
Overall for the company, as I previously mentioned, we improved our sales outlook by $200 million for the year to a range of between $22.6 billion and $23.1 billion, which represents a 6 to 8% increase over last year.
With respect to overall margins, the company has performing well. We have increased our full year total company margin outlook by 10 basis points to a range of between 11 and 11.3%. We had an excellent second quarter; a solid backlog, double-digit organic growth and strong cash flow generation. Our businesses continue to perform well and we expect that to be the case going forward. With that, let me open up the call to questions.